sea turtle

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sea turtle,

name for several species of large marine turtlesturtle,
a reptile of the order Chelonia, with strong, beaked, toothless jaws and, usually, an armorlike shell. The shell normally consists of bony plates overlaid with horny shields.
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 found in tropical and subtropical oceans. These turtles are modified for life in the ocean by having flipperlike forelimbs without toes and lightweight shells. Their heads are too large to be withdrawn into the shell. They spend most of their lives in the water, but come ashore to lay their eggs. Nearly all species have a circumglobal distribution although there are differences between the Atlantic and the Pacific populations. Most sea turtles are found in North American waters as far N as the U.S. S Atlantic coast and Baja California.

All sea turtle species are declining in numbers, owing in large part to the destruction of the eggs, which are widely used as food in tropical regions. Sea turtle meat is also eaten, and there is a market for turtle oil, hide, and shell. In a few places, such as Sarawak, harvesting of eggs is regulated by law to insure propagation of the species. The size of sea turtles has also decreased, owing to the hunting of large specimens.

The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, with greenish to brownish skin and shell, formerly reached weights of 1,000 lb (450 kg); the largest now found are about 4 ft (120 cm) long and weigh about 500 lb (225 kg). The green turtle feeds chiefly on marine vegetation and is most abundant in shallow water. The loggerhead, Caretta caretta, is a large-headed brown to reddish turtle. Chiefly carnivorous, it ranges from open oceans to coastal salt marshes and stream mouths. Like the green turtle it sometimes comes ashore in uninhabited places to bask.

The hawksbill, or tortoiseshell turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, may reach 30 in. (75 cm) in length and weigh 100 lbs (45 kg). The horny plates of its shell are translucent and have a variegated color pattern, chiefly brown and yellow. These plates have long been valued for the making of ornamental objects. Although tortoiseshell has to a large extent been replaced in many applications by plastic, a renewed demand for the genuine material poses a serious threat to the hawksbill.

The ridleys, the smallest sea turtles, inhabit shallow offshore waters. The 2-ft (60-cm) long, gray Kemp's, or Atlantic, ridley, Lepidochelys kempii, breeds only in the Gulf of Mexico, although the young are often carried by the Gulf Stream to the Carribean Sea and Europe. The slightly larger, greenish olive, or Pacific, ridley (L. olivacea), also known as the oliveback, is found in the Indian and Pacific oceans. The leatherbackleatherback,
marine turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate waters around the world. The largest of all turtles, it may reach a length of 7 1-2 ft (230 cm) and weigh 1200 lb (540 kg).
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 is the largest of all turtles; it belongs to a separate family from the other sea turtles.

All sea turtles other than the leatherback are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Reptilia, order Chelonia, family Chelonidae; the leatherback belongs to the family Dermochelidae.

Bibliography

See J. R. Spotila, Saving Sea Turtles (2011).

sea turtle

[′sē ‚tərd·əl]
(vertebrate zoology)
Any of various marine turtles, principally of the families Cheloniidae and Dermochelidae, having paddle-shaped feet.
References in periodicals archive ?
Building a BetterWorld for the pawikans is not just our responsibility but also our gift to the next generation, said Erramon I.
The night patrol was revived for those interested to witness the actual pawikan that will come to the shores to hatch so they will know what to do when this happens,'' she said.
In this light, the Philippines again calls on Malaysia, a close neighbor and a fellow founding member of the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), to reconsider its current actions in Pawikan Shoal in the spirit of ASEAN solidarity and cooperation and in the interest of peace and stability in the region," Barican said.
Pawikan is approximately 253 nautical miles off Palawan and overlaps with Malaysia's exclusive economic zone.
He said Community Environment and Natural Resources Officer Moises de la Cruz of DENR-CENRO Borongan reported that the turtles, known as pawikans in the local dialect, were trapped in a fish coral owned by a Mr.
The boy Camilo, son of a fisherman, steals the eggs of a female pawikan (marine turtle) and attributes the deaths of his parents at sea to this forbidden theft.
You could also engage in marine activities through Pawikan Aqua Sports Center.
Non-golfers are also presented with a variety of leisure activities such as Anvaya Cove Beach and Nature Club's multi-purpose function rooms, recreational beach areas that feature a Water Sports Pavilion and the Pawikan Bar and Grill, a pool complex that features an infinity pool, lounge pool, lap pool, and nature camp trails.
Twelve Filipinos were detained last month in Sandakan, Sabah, for trying to bring in 19,000 eggs of pawikan (marine turtles).
This was the first time a green sea turtle was seen in Subic Bay area, a known nesting site for other pawikan species, such as olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Castillo said.
Pacsafe has extended its company's global marine turtle conservation advocacy by providing a kick-off fund donation of P235,000 to the Bantay Pawikan Conservation Center in Morong, Bataan, through the Bataan Tourism Council.
Tayabas Bay off Quezon, Marinduque and Batangas provinces is also a sanctuary to endangered sea turtles, locally called pawikan.