Peace of Utrecht

Utrecht, Peace of,

series of treaties that concluded the War of the Spanish SuccessionSpanish Succession, War of the,
1701–14, last of the general European wars caused by the efforts of King Louis XIV to extend French power. The conflict in America corresponding to the period of the War of the Spanish Succession was known as Queen Anne's War (see French and
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. It put an end to French expansion and signaled the rise of the British Empire. By the treaty between England and France (Apr. 11, 1713), Louis XIV recognized the English succession as established in the house of Hanover and confirmed the renunciation of the claims to the French throne of Louis's grandson, Philip V of Spain. The French fortifications of Dunkirk were to be razed and the harbor filled up, and the Hudson Bay territory, Acadia, St. Kitts, and Newfoundland were ceded to England. By a commercial treaty England and France granted each other most-favored-nation treatment. By a treaty with the Netherlands (Apr. 11, 1713) France agreed to surrender to Austria the Spanish Netherlands still in French hands; these were to be held in trust by the Netherlands until the conclusion of a treaty between the Netherlands and the Holy Roman emperor. A commercial treaty between France and the Netherlands was also signed. France furthermore restored Savoy and Nice to Victor Amadeus IIVictor Amadeus II
, 1666–1732, duke of Savoy (1675–1713), king of Sicily (1713–20), king of Sardinia (1720–30). Succeeding his father, Charles Emmanuel II, as duke of Savoy, he overthrew the regency of his mother in 1683.
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, recognizing him as king of Savoy. France also signed a treaty with Portugal and one with Prussia confirming the kingship of the Prussian rulers. The Anglo-Spanish treaty (July 13, 1713) confirmed the clauses of the Anglo-French treaties relating to the English and French successions. Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to Great Britain and ceded Sicily (exchanged in 1720 for SardiniaSardinia
, Ital. Sardegna, region (1991 pop. 1,648,248), 9,302 sq mi (24,092 sq km), W Italy, mostly on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, which is separated in the north from Corsica by the Strait of Bonifacio.
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) to Savoy. Britain and Spain signed the Asiento, an agreement giving Britain the sole right to the slave trade with Spanish America. The Treaty of Rastatt (Mar. 7, 1714) between Louis XIV and Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and the Treaty of Baden (Sept. 7, 1714), which completed the settlement, restored the right bank of the Rhine to the empire and confirmed Austria in possession of the formerly Spanish Netherlands, of Naples, and of Milan. The Third Barrier Treaty (Nov. 15, 1715) regulated trade relations between the Dutch and Austrian Netherlands.

Bibliography

See J. W. Gerard, The Peace of Utrecht (1885).

References in periodicals archive ?
Boscawen goes on to examine the background to the construction of the French fortification at Louisbourg, ranging from the reorganization of the defense of New France following the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 to the perception on both sides that Louisbourg had become an important trading point, the key bastion in the defense of the Saint Lawrence River and Quebec, as well as the French fisheries on the Grand Banks.
Scholars of English literature and of history explore accounts of traveling to and in the Middle East from the Ottoman conquest of Egypt and North Africa to the Peace of Utrecht.
Determined pacifists, they tried to find a middle ground between their Indian neighbors; demanding and intrusive Quebec and the Church, which presumed to direct the Acadians without offering protection; and the mounting power and presence of English, who had with the Peace of Utrecht taken formal dominion over Acadia.
Gibraltar was captured by Royal Marines in 1704 and officially ceded to Britain by Spain at the 1713 Peace of Utrecht.
With characteristic foresight and political acumen, Handel accepted the commission (indeed he may have actually begun to write the work before receiving a commission) to compose a Te Deum for the Thanksgiving service, despite the fact that the Peace of Utrecht was far from satisfactory to the future King George, who promptly disconti nued Handel's appointment (if only temporarily).
Mining the huge literature on Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt and sundry aspects of their families, as well as private papers and interviews with descendants, the book breaks with usual practice by treating the often bitterly opposed TR and FDR branches as one, closing with a 1989 Hyde Park rapprochement that family members gibed as "the Peace of Utrecht.