Pedagogical Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Pedagogical Encyclopedias and Dictionaries


scholarly reference works on pedagogy and public education containing information on the history, theory, and practice of upbringing and education as a whole or on individual branches of pedagogy. Pedagogical encyclopedias may be of a general nature or they may deal with specific problems, divisions, and disciplines of pedagogy. Most pedagogical encyclopedias are arranged alphabetically; others are arranged by topic. Dictionaries of pedagogical terms may be unilingual (interpretative) or bilingual and multilingual.

Pedagogical encyclopedias first appeared in the late 18th century. The increasing number of pedagogical textbooks and theoretical works on pedagogy and pedagogical psychology made it necessary to summarize accumulated pedagogical knowledge in encyclopedia form, which was tthe most convenient for reference. A typical example of such a basic work is the 16-volume Allgemeine Revision des gesamten Schul- und Erziehungswesen (Hamburg [et al.], 1785–92), compiled under the direction of the German educator and philanthropist J. H. Campe. Beginning in the early 19th century, pedagogical encyclopedias were compiled in many countries; their development was influenced principally by German and French works. In the 20th century, British and American works have been most influential.

In Russia the first attempt to systematize pedagogical ideas was made by F. Angal’t, who compiled two collections of moralizing aphorisms in Russian, French, German, and Latin, La Muraille parlante (St. Petersburg, 1790) and La Salle de récréations (St. Petersburg, 1791). In 1829 the publisher S. Glinka issued in Moscow a new edition of these aphorisms entitled The Art of Learning While Strolling, or A Pocket Encyclopedia for Education. A more serious attempt to compile pedagogical ideas was made by P. N. Engalychev with his On Physical and Moral Upbringing, With an Attached Dictionary of Virtues and Vices (St. Petersburg, 1824), A Dictionary of Physical and Moral Upbringing (parts 1–2, St. Petersburg, 1827), and A Dictionary of Virtues and Vices, With a Supplement of Certain Memorable Events (parts 1–2, St. Petersburg, 1828). These works, the first of their kind in dictionary form, consisted of edifying examples from history and of quotations from other works. However, they contained almost no material on pedagogy.

The first Soviet pedagogical encyclopedia, published in Moscow from 1927 to 1929, was the three-volume Pedagogical Encyclopedia edited by A. G. Kalashnikov and M. S. Epshtein with the collaboration of the most prominent Soviet educators. This work did not discuss fully many problems of Soviet pedagogy of the 1920’s; there was a diversity of views, and many of the articles contained ideological and methodological errors. However, the encyclopedia summarized extensive material on the history and theory of instruction and upbringing. In 1960 the RSFSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences published a concise two-volume Pedagogical Dictionary, with I. A. Kairov as editor in chief. Between 1964 and 1968 the Soviet Encyclopedia publishing house issued a four-volume Pedagogical Encyclopedia, with I. A. Kairov and F. N. Petrov as editors in chief. This encyclopedia contains about 3,000 articles on basic psychological and pedagogical questions of upbringing, general pedagogical problems, didactics, methods of upbringing, extracurricular activities, pedagogical psychology, child psychology and physiology, mental retardation, systems of public education in the USSR and other countries, branches of special education, and Russian and foreign educators and pedagogical specialists.

The following list of foreign pedagogical encyclopedias and dictionaries includes those still of value and those important because they reflect pedagogical principles characteristic of their time.

Great Britain

Fletcher, A. E. Sonnenschein’s Cyclopaedia of Education, London, 1888; 3rd rev. ed., London-New York, 1906.

The Teacher’s Encyclopedia of the Theory, Method, Practice, History, and Development of Education at Home and Abroad. Edited by A. P. Laurie. Vols. 1–7, London, 1911–12; 2nd ed., vols. 1–4, London, 1922.

Watson, F. Encyclopaedia and Dictionary of Education, vols. 1–4. London et al., 1921–22.

Macmillan’s Teaching in Practice: An Encyclopaedia of Modern Methods of Teaching in Primary School. Edited by E. J. S. Lay. Vols. 1–7. London, 1931–39.

Macmillan’s Teaching in Practice for Junior Schools: A New Encyclopaedia of Teaching. Edited by E. J. S. Lay. Vols. 1–7. London, 1938.

Macmillan’s Teaching in Practice for Seniors: An Encyclopaedia of Modern Methods of Teaching. Edited by E. J. S. Lay. Vols. 1–8. London, 1938.

Blond’s Encyclopaedia of Education. Edited by E. Blishen. [London, 1969.]

German Democratic Republic

Kleine pädagogische Enzyklopädie. Edited by H. Frankiewicz [et al.]. Berlin, 1960.

Pädagogische Enzyklopädie. Edited by H. Frankiewicz [et al.]. Vols. 1–2. Berlin, 1963.

Germany (before 1945)

Reuter, D. Pädagogisches Reallexikon, oder Repertorium für Erziehungs- und Unterrichtskunde und ihre Literatur. Nuremberg, 1811.

Encyklopädisch-pädagogisches Lexicon, oder Vollständiges al-phabetisch geordnetes Hand- und Hilfsbuch der Pädagogik und Didaktik. Revised and edited by J. G. C. Wörle. Heilbronn, 1835.

Universal-Lexicon der Erziehungs- und Unterrichtslehre. Edited by M. C. Münch. Vols. 1–3, Augsburg, 1841–42; 3rd ed., Augsburg, 1859–60.

Pädagogische Real-Encyklopädie, oder Encyklopädisches Wörterbuch des Erziehungs- und Unterrichtswesens und seiner Geschichte…. Edited by K. G. Hergang. Grimma, 1843–47; 2nd ed., vols. 1–2, Grimma, 1851–52.

Encyklopädie des gesamten Erziehungs- und Unterrichtswesens. Vols. 1–10, Gotha, 1859–75; 2nd ed., 1876–87.

Encyklopädie der Pädagogik vom gegenwärtigen Standpunkte der Wissenschaft, vols. 1–2. Leipzig, 1860.

Real-Encyklopädie des Erziehungs- und Unterrichtswesens nach katholischen Principien. Revised and edited by H. Rolfus and A. Pfister. Vols. 1–4, Mainz, 1863–66; 2nd ed., vols. 1–4, Mainz, 1872–74; supplement, 1884.

Wittstock, A. Encyklopädie der Pädagogik im Grundriss. Heidelberg, 1865.

Vogel, A. Systematische Encyklopädie der Pädagogik. Eisenach, 1881.

Sander, F. Lexikon der Pädagogik. Leipzig, 1883; 2nd ed., Breslau, 1889.

Encyklopädisches Handbuch der Pädagogik. Edited by W. Rein. Vols. 1–7, Langensalza, 1895–99; 2nd ed., vols. 1–10, 1903–11.

Lexikon der Pädagogik Edited by M. Roloff. Vols. 1–5, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1913–17; 2nd ed., 1921.

Handwörterbuch des Volksschulwesens. Edited by E. Claus-nitzer [et al.]. Leipzig-Berlin, 1920.

Pädagogisches Lexikon. Edited by H. Schwartz. Vols. 1–4. Bielefeld-Leipzig, 1928–31.

Handbuch der Pädagogik. Edited by H. Nohl and L. Pallat. Vols. 1–5; supplement, Berlin [et al.], 1928–33.

Lexikon der Pädagogik der Gegenwart. Edited by J. Spieler. Vols. 1–2. Freiburg im Breisgau, 1930–32.

Hehlmann, W. Pädagogisches Wörterbuch. Leipzig, 1931; 7th ed. [in the FRG], Wörterbuch der Pädagogik, Stuttgart, 1964.


Encyklopedyja wychowawcza. Edited by J. T. Lubomirski [et al.]. Vols. 1–9. Warsaw, 1881–1922.

Kierski, F. Podrȩczna encyklopedja pedagogiczna. Vols. 1–2. Lwów, 1923–25.

Króliński, K. Podrȩczny leksykon pedagogiczny. Poznań, 1935.

Encyklopedja wychowania. S. Lempicki, editor in chief. Vols. 1–4. Warsaw, 1933.

United States

The Encyclopedia of Education. Edited by H. Kiddle and A. J. Schem. New York-London, 1877. (This work, the first pedagogical encyclopedia in English, was published in both the USA and Great Britain.)

A Cyclopedia of Education. Edited by P. Monroe. Vols. 1–5. New York, 1911–13. Reissued 1926–28.

Encyclopedia of Educational Research. Edited by W. S. Monroe. New York, 1941; 3rd ed., 1960. Edited by C. W. Harris with the assistance of M. R. Liba. Translated into Spanish as Enciclopedia de la educación científica. Havana, 1956.

Encyclopedia of Child Guidance. Edited by R. B. Winn. New York, 1943.

Encyclopedia of Modern Education. Edited by H. N. Rivlin and H. Schueler. New York, 1943; 2nd ed., 1948. Translated into Spanish as Enciclopedia de la educación moderna, vols. 1–2, Buenos Aires, 1956.

Dictionary of Education. Prepared under the auspices of Phi Delta Kappa; edited by C. V. Good. New York-London, 1945; 2nd ed., New York, 1959.

Dewey, J. Dictionary of Education. Edited by R. B. Winn. New York, 1959.


Morard, T. V. Dictionnaire général usuel et classique d’éducation, d’instruction et d’enseignement, ou l’Art de s’instruire soi-même et d’enseigner les autres. Paris, 1836.

Dictionnaire universel d’éducation et d’enseignement. Edited by E. M. Campagne. Bordeaux, 1869; 3rd ed., Paris, 1873.

Dictionnaire de pédagogie et d’instruction primaire. Published under the direction of F. Buisson. Part 1 (vols. 1–2), part 2 (vols. 1–2), two supplements, Paris, 1878–87; 2nd printing [2nd ed.], 1887–88.

Nouveau dictionnaire de pédagogie et d’instruction primaire. Published under the direction of F. Buisson. Paris, 1911.

Encyclopédie générale de l’éducation française, vols. 1–4. Paris, 1952–54.

Encyclopédie pratique de l’éducation en France. Paris, 1960.

Federal Republic of Germany

Pädagogisches Fachwörterbuch. Donauwörth, 1952.

Lexikon der Pädagogik, 3rd ed. Vols. 1–4, Freiburg, 1952–55; supplement, 1964; 4th ed., vols. 1–5, 1964–65.

Pädagogisches Lexikon. Edited by H. H. Groothoff and M. Stallmann. Stuttgart, 1961.

Das grosse Lexikon für Eltern und Erzieher. Edited by V. Neubauer and A. Neubauer. Frankfurt am Main-Innsbruck, 1962.

Pädagogisches Lexikon. Edited by V. Horney [et al.]. Vols. 1–2. [Gütersloh, 1970.]

Handbuch pädagogischer Grundbegriffe. Edited by J. Speck and G. Wehle. Vols. 1–2. Munich, 1970.

Neues pädagogisches Lexikon. Edited by H. H. Groothoff and M. Stallmann. Stuttgart-Berlin, 1971.


Pedagogická encyclopedie. Edited by O. Chlup, J. Kubálek, and J. Uher. Parts 1–3. Prague, 1938–40.

Pedagogický slovník. B. Kujal, editor in chief [et al.]. Parts 1–2. Prague, 1965–67.


Lexikon der Pädagogik, vols. 1–3. Bern, 1950–52.

Hanselmann, H. Eltern-Lexikon. Zürich, 1956.


Enciklopedijski rjećnik pedagogije. Edited by D. Franković [et al.]. Zagreb, 1963.

Pedagogiční rečnik. R. Teodosić, editor in chief. Vols. 1–2. Belgrade, 1967.