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(also perennial plants), herbs and subshrubs that persist through more than two winters. Some perennials live several years, and others 20 to 30 years. Some species have a life-span of 100 years (for example, tau-saghyz). Upon reaching a certain age, perennials may flower and bear fruit every year (polycarpic plants); this contrasts with annuals and biennials (monocarpic plants), which flower and bear fruit only one time. Some perennials retain their leaves year round (evergreens). In unfavorable periods (winter, drought), the leaves and other aboveground organs of most perennials die, and only the underground organs remain alive (rhizomes, tubers, bulbs, and roots). In some perennials the aboveground shoots are partially preserved as well (rosettes, creeping shoots, and the lower parts of erect stems).

Sometimes the division of plants into annuals, biennials, and perennials is conditional. For example, the tropical perennial castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) grows as an annual in moderate climates, and annual bluegrass (Poa annua), which generally grows on plains, develops as a perennial in the mountains. Trees and shrubs are sometimes referred to as perennials.


Serebriakov, I. G. Morfologiia vegetativnykh organov vysshikh rastenii. Moscow, 1952.
Botanika, 7th ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
Grasses, legumes, and hardy native "weeds" could in many cases serve to restore degraded soil to the point where other perennial plants, including trees, could grow.
You cannot use this voucher in conjunction with any other offer or with the 4 for pounds 10 offer on the Essentials hardy perennial plants.
Being a long-lived perennial plant it needs little attention and is often one of the first "fruits" of the year, although it is in fact a vegetable.
The real version of this splendid little perennial plant inhabits damp, shady places and can be found right around the 'Celtic Fringe' of northwestern
The little perennial plant has brilliant yellow flowers.
It's the perfect perennial plant for attracting butterflies to the garden.
Great for shaded areas where little else will prosper, Brunnera macrophylla 'Jack Frost' is a premium and highly coveted dwarf-growing perennial plant.
As a long-lived perennial plant, it needs little attention.
This week's offer is for 24 Digitalis Mixed, the perfect border perennial plant, which is ideal for adding colour and character to the garden from June through to the end of August.
As a long-lived perennial plant, it needs little attention and with its huge leaves and beautiful, bright-red leaf stalks, it makes a spectacular addition to a herbaceous border, vegetable patch and even large containers on the patio.