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Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.



(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.



in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
Initial diagnosis of perforation peritonitis in all patients was established by presence of peritoneal signs and/or evidence of gas under both domes of diaphragm on an erect chest x-ray PA view.
Regardless of whether a color-coded glove system is used, both the inner and outer pairs of gloves should be changed as soon as possible whenever a perforation is detected, since a perforation in the outer pair of gloves is an indication that the inner glove may be compromised as well.
Our inclusion criteria required that each tympanic membrane perforation had been dry for at least 1 month before surgery and that the middle ear mucosa be apparently healthy.
The preoperative radiograph showed inadequately sealed root canals, periapical lesions with iatrogenic lateral root perforation of tooth 16 (Figure 2a).
The signs of gallbladder perforation can be either direct and indirect: the demonstration of either calculus outside the gallbladder or sonographic or tomographic hole-sign is a direct indicator according to Pedrosa et al (16).
However, there were few case reports in the literature where a perforation in MD was diagnosed preoperatively on careful evaluation using Abdominal CT.
32,33 The ideal material for treating radicular perforations should be nontoxic, nonabsorbable, radiopaque, and bacteriostatic or bactericidal37; it should also provide a seal against microleakage from the perforation.
Spontaneous perforation of gallbladder with intrahepatic biloma formation: sonographic signs and correlation with computed tomography.
Disease incidence (%): The disease incidence was significantly affected by maturity stages, package perforation and storage duration.
Keywords: Etiological spectrum, Perforation peritonitis, Typhoid, Tuberculosis.
First, the region of ulcer or perforation was marked with a 45[degrees] microknife (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) and all the necrotic tissue on the surface of the cornea lesion was scraped off.
In the presence of an intact middle ear system, we support the notion that the degree of hearing loss is affected only by the size of the TM perforation (more hearing loss with bigger perforation size) and middle ear volume (more hearing loss with smaller middle ear volume).