Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.


Inflammation of the pericardium.



inflammation of the pericardium.

Among the causative agents of infectious pericarditis in man are cocci, viruses, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sensitization of the pericardium by the products of tissue protein degradation and by bacterial toxins plays a role in the development of infectious pericarditis. Such an allergic mechanism may also be an independent pathogenetic factor. Rheumatic pericarditis is the commonest form.

Among the causes of noninfectious pericarditis are uremia, myocardial infarction, trauma, and postoperative factors. There is also a benign pericarditis of unknown etiology (idiopathic pericarditis). Fibrinous pericarditis, in which a dry film (fibrin) is deposited on the layers of the pericardium, occurs in tuberculosis, uremia, and myocardial infarction. Pericarditis with effusion, in which the pericardial cavity is filled with an exudate, may be serous or serofibrinous (tuberculous, rheumatic, idiopathic pericarditis), hemorrhagic (tuberculous pericarditis and various tumors), or purulent or pyogenic, which may result from a pulmonary abscess.

Symptoms of pericarditis include malaise, fever, chills, and sweating; the blood exhibits changes. In dry pericarditis, additional symptoms are pain in the heart and a pericardial friction rub. Additional symptoms in pericarditis with effusion are poor general condition, palpitation, dyspnea, distention of the veins of the neck, bulging of the heart, and widening of the cardiac silhouette owing to the exudate. The outcome of pericarditis may be complete resorption of the exudate or formation of adhesions and fusion of the layers of the pericardium.

Treatment, depending on the cause of pericarditis, may be antirheumatic, antitubercular, and so on. Antibiotics, antiallergy and anti-inflammatory drugs, and symptomatic treatment are also used. If necessary, the exudate is removed by puncture or surgery.


Jonaš, V. Chastnaia kardiologiia, 3rd ed. Prague, 1963. (Translated from Czech.)
Miasnikov, A. L. Vnutrennie bolezni. Moscow, 1967.


Pericarditis in animals, often due to injury, occurs in cattle and, less often, in other ruminants. It is caused by metallic and other sharp objects entering the rumen with food, perforating the wall of the reticulum and diaphragm, and traumatizing the pericardium, causing inflammation and accumulation of exudate. Initial symptoms include tenderness in the heart region, groaning, rejection of food, and slackening of rumination. Later symptoms include distension of the neck veins, edema of the dewlap and intermaxillary space, widening of the cardiac silhouette, a pericardial friction rub and clapotement (splashing sound), and intermittent fever. Since the prognosis is unfavorable, the sick animals are killed, and their meat is used only on the instructions of a veterinarian. Prevention involves keeping pastures, food storage areas, barnyards, and cattle passes free of metallic objects and removing metallic objects from free-flowing feed by magnets.


Vnutrennie nezaraznye bolezni sel’skokhoziaistvennykh zhivotnykh, 4th ed. [Edited by I. G. Sharabrin.] Moscow, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
Characterizing chronic pericarditis using steady-state free-precession cine MR imaging.
Patients averaged 49 years of age; more than 80% had idiopathic pericarditis with the rest divided nearly equally between cardiac injury syndrome and connective tissue disease.
Uremic pericarditis is one of the common complications of uremia and the life threatening complications like pericardial effusion with acute cardiac tamponade can occasionally develop.
Most cases of acute, uncomplicated pericarditis are self-limited and require treatments that are supportive, anti-inflammatory, and aimed at the suspected etiology of the illness.
Management of tuberculous pericarditis and tuberculous pericardial effusion in Transkei: results at 10 year follow-up.
The company's Complete Response accepted by the FDA included specific guidance for identifying patients at potential risk for, and guidance to manage patients who may develop pericarditis or pericardial effusions.
A MAJORITY of consignors at the upcoming Keeneland July Select Yearling Sale in Kentucky have agreed to have their horses scanned for pericarditis.
He was reportedly treated for pericarditis, an inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart, which was triggered by histoplasmosis, a fungal infection of the lung.
High haptoglobin levels have been reported in the blood of cattle with mastitis, metritis, pyometra, traumatic reticulitis, abomasal displacement, traumatic pericarditis, bacterial nephritis, and hepatic lipidosis.
Delayed diagnosis may result in serious complications, including mediastinitis, pneumonitis, pericarditis, empyema, and death.
Interestingly, deceased birds from group G had also developed mild perihepatitis and pericarditis with heavy bacterial loads in the internal organs.