From a public health perspective, periodic abstinence
is seen as less effective than modern contraceptive methods and concerns have been raised about its contribution to mistimed and unwanted births.
Five women adopted a hormonal method or an IUD before the resumption of sexual intercourse, while three used condoms, and two others practiced periodic abstinence
after resuming sex.
5% ever users were still currently using the male condom and the highest response for an alternative method of contraception was observed for periodic abstinence
In this final section I address the classic question of why the practice of periodic abstinence
(or periodic continence) (64) is morally good and consistent with chastity (and thus with the full truth about sexuality and marriage), while contraceptive acts are morally evil and opposed to chastity.
Parents are morally obligated to engage in responsible planning for children, with the recognition that periodic abstinence
reveals the sacrifice that is always involved in real love.
teaches the couple--the man specifically--to learn self-control and to see his wife's fertility as a precious gift.
The use of combinations of methods, for example, combining the use of condoms, withdrawal, and periodic abstinence
or double protection from the use of both condom and pill, was not identifiable from the data.
However, four in 10 users depended on periodic abstinence
, withdrawal or other traditional methods, which have high failure rates.
As a result, they may more responsibly use and maximize the effectiveness of periodic abstinence
and barrier methods.
The Vatican, of course, remains officially opposed to all family planning methods except "natural family planning," which involves periodic abstinence
However, in eight developing countries that have this information, between one-third and two-thirds of single, sexually active women are not using any contraceptive method; a further 10-40% are using a traditional method, predominantly periodic abstinence
The probabilities of conception by cycle day estimated by Barrett and Marshall, whose calculations included data on current users of periodic abstinence
who had previously used this method, might also be too low.