Perissodactyla


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Perissodactyla

An order of herbivorous, odd-toed, hoofed mammals, including the living horses, zebras, asses, tapirs, rhinoceroses, and their extinct relatives. They are defined by a number of unique specializations, but the most diagnostic feature is their feet. Most perissodactyls have either one or three toes on each foot, and the axis of symmetry of the foot runs through the middle digit.

The perissodactyls are divided into three groups: the Hippomorpha (horses and their extinct relatives); the Titanotheriomorpha (the extinct brontotheres); and the Moropomorpha (tapirs, rhinoceroses, and their extinct relatives). See Rhinoceros, Tapir

Perissodactyls originated in Asia some time before 57 million years ago (Ma). By 55 Ma, the major groups of perissodactyls had differentiated, and migrated to Europe and North America. Before 34 Ma, the brontotheres and the archaic tapirs were the largest and most abundant hoofed mammals in Eurasia and North America. After these groups became extinct, horses and rhinoceroses were the most common perissodactyls, with a great diversity of species and body forms. Both groups were decimated during another mass extinction about 5 Ma, and today only five species of rhinoceros, four species of tapir, and a few species of horses, zebras, and asses cling to survival in the wild. The niches of large hoofed herbivores have been taken over by the ruminant artiodactyls, such as cattle, antelopes, deer, and their relatives. See Mammalia

Perissodactyla

 

(odd-toed ungulates), an order of large or, less frequently, medium-size mammals.

The forelimbs have one, three, or five digits; the hind limbs have one or three digits. The third digit is most highly developed and bears the principal weight of the animal’s body. The terminal digital bones are encased by hooves. The cheek teeth have transverse and longitudinal ridges on the chewing surface and are adapted for grinding coarse vegetable food. The facial portion of the skull is long. Clavicles are absent, and, unlike in Artiodactyla, the femur has a third trochanter. Odd-toed ungulates are herbivorous. The stomach is simple and has a single chamber; the cecum and colon are long and large and have numerous protusions, or pouches, that facilitate digestion of coarse food. The uterus is bicornuate, and the placenta is diffused. There is one pair of mammary glands, located in the region of the groin. The number of young is one.

Odd-toed ungulates are distributed in Africa, Asia, and South America. They have been domesticated on all continents. Wild forms were encountered in southern Europe until the end of the 19th century. Extant representatives of the Perissodactyla make up the three families Equidae, Rhinocerotidae, and Tapiridae.

REFERENCES

Sokolov, I. I. Kopytnye zveri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1959. (Fauna SSSR: Mlekopitaiushchie, vol. 1, issue 3.)
Mlekopitaiushchie Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 1. Moscow, 1961.

I. I. SOKOLOV

Perissodactyla

[pə‚ris·ō′dak·tə·lə]
(vertebrate zoology)
An order of exclusively herbivorous mammals distinguished by an odd number of toes and mesaxonic feet, that is, with the axis going through the third toe.
References in periodicals archive ?
Baron] Cuvier, 1798) Perissodactyla Tapiridae 137 Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) Cetartiodactyla Tayassuidae 138 Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758) 139 Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795) Cervidae 140 Mazama americana (Erxleben, 1777) 141 Mazama nemorivaga (F.
The gathered information on the mammals included 8 orders: Didelphimorphia, Xenarthra, Primates, Carnivora, Rodentia, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla and Lagomorpha, respectively.
La comunidad de mamiferos de mediano y gran porte de las Yungas del NOA incluye una diversidad importante de taxones, con aproximadamente 37 especies agrupadas en 9 ordenes (Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Cingulata, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, Pilosa, Primates y Rodentia).
Los ordenes con mayor riqueza de especies en el Estado son: Chiroptera con 55 especies, Rodentia con 18 y Carnivora con 17, mientras que Cingulata, Soricomorpha y Perissodactyla solo cuentan con una especie cada uno (Cuadro 1).
Slaughter, 1981; Carnivora (Canidae y Amphicyonidae), Artiodactyla (Tayassuidae, Oreodontidae y Protoceratidae) y Perissodactyla (Equidae y Rhinocerotidae) cf.
Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla and Rodentia), we used a field guide to interview local residents together with our direct and indirect sightings (e.
CO CM CARNIVORA Canidae Canis lupus familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) Perro domestico CI CO Felidae Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Gato domestico CI CO PERISSODACTYLA Equidae Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 Asno, burro CM Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 Caballo, yegua CI CM CETARTIODACTYLA Bovidae Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Vaca, toro CI CM CO Bubalus bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Bufalo de agua CM CO Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 Cabra CI CM CO Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 Oveja CM CO Camelidae Lamaglamaglama (Linnaeus, 1758) Llama CM CO Hippopotamidae Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 Hipopotamo CO SA Suidae Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Cerdo CI CM CO
Species Common name Rodentia Cuniculidae Cuniculus taczanowskii Mountain paca Dinomyidae Dinomys branickii Pacarana Lagomorpha Leporidae Sylvilagus brasiliensis Brazilian Rabbit Carnivora Felidae Leopardus pardalis Ocelot Puma concolor Puma Canidae Lycalopex culpaeus Culpeo fox Ursidae Tremarctos ornatus Spectacled bear Mephitidae Conepatus chinga Andean Skunk Mustelidae Eira barbara Tayra Mustela frenata Long-tailed Weasel Perissodactyla Tapiridae Tapirus pinchaque Mountain tapir Artiodactyla Cervidae Mazama sp.
En base a esto, los mamiferos reconocidos permitieron discriminar 55 generos y 50 especies incluidas en 9 ordenes: Didelphimorphia, Xenarthra, Litopterna, Notoungulata, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, Proboscidea, Carnivora y Rodentia.
land turtle 11 11 14 13 Podocnemis turtle of the 11 11 13 12 expansa Amazonia Kinosternon mud turtle 02 02 01 01 scorpioides BIRDS Crypturellus soui littler 01 01 -- -- tinamou Tinamidae tinamou 01 01 -- -- MAMMALS DIDELPHIMORPHIA Didelphis opossum 78 81 (a) 47 44 (a) marsupialis XENARTHRA Myrmecophagidae giant anteater 06 06 -- -- Bradypus sloth 12 13 04 04 variegatus Dasypodidae armadillo 54 56 (a) 25 23 PRIMATES Alouatta belzebul howler monkey 05 05 01 01 CARNIVORA Cerdocyon thous fox 01 01 -- -- Procyon raccoon 01 01 -- -- cancrivorus Nasua nasua coati 01 01 -- -- Panthera onca jaguar 08 08 -- -- PERISSODACTYLA Tapirus tapir 06 06 02 02 terrestris ARTIODACTYLA Tayassu pecari white-lipped 09 09 04 04 peccary Pecari tajacu collared 08 08 03 03 peccary Mazama sp.
Orden Familia Genero Especies Porcentaje Didelphimorphia 1 14 40 7,9 Paucituberculata 1 2 2 0,4 Sirenia 1 1 1 0,2 Cingulata 1 3 6 1,2 Pilosa 4 5 7 1,4 Primates 3 12 39 7,7 Rodentia 11 63 162 31,9 Lagomorpha 1 1 1 0,2 Soricomorpha 1 1 2 0,4 Chiroptera 8 63 165 32,5 Carnivora 7 21 34 6,7 Perissodactyla 1 1 2 0,4 Cetartiodactyla 10 31 47 9,3 50 218 508 Especies % Especies Orden endemicas endemicas Didelphimorphia 8 1,6 Paucituberculata 0 0,0 Sirenia 0 0,0 Cingulata 1 0,2 Pilosa 0 0,0 Primates 3 0,6 Rodentia 45 8,9 Lagomorpha 0 0,0 Soricomorpha 1 0,2 Chiroptera 7 1,4 Carnivora 0 0,0 Perissodactyla 0 0,0 Cetartiodactyla 0 0,0 65 12,8 Tabla 3.