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art of compounding and dispensing drugs and medication. The term is also applied to an establishment used for such purposes. Until modern times medication was prepared and dispensed by the physician himself. In the 18th cent. the practice of pharmacy began to be separated from that of medicine. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science was founded in 1821, the first school of its kind in the United States. The American Pharmaceutical Association was formed in 1851. The progress of medicine, and therefore the expansion of pharmacy, has necessitated more stringent requirements in the training of pharmacists; it is of vital interest that medications be formulated accurately according to the physician's prescription. Schools of pharmacy are now associated with universities, and a degree in pharmacy follows a four-year course of instruction. Examination and licensing by the state is mandatory.



an establishment for the preparation, storage, and dispensing of medicines and other medical commodities. There is information that laboratories for the preparation of medicines existed in countries of the ancient world (China, Egypt, and Rome). The pharmacy as a government-regulated institution originated in Baghdad in the eighth century. The pharmacy of that period was characterized by the presence of laboratories where comparatively complex medications were prepared and synthesized. It was only in the 19th and 20th centuries that the development of the pharmaceutical industry caused laboratories in pharmacies to lose their importance.

There is no reliable information concerning the time of the founding of pharmacies in Russia. The first government-regulated tsarist pharmacy dates to 1581. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the highest government organ of medical and pharmaceutical affairs was the Aptekarskii prikaz (pharmaceutical department). In 1701, Peter I issued a decree on the organization of private pharmacies in Moscow. At the end of the 18th century there were about 100 pharmacies in Russia. Their activities were regulated by the Aptekarskii ustav (pharmaceutical charter; 1789). With the development of zemstvo (district assembly) institutions, zemstvo pharmacies began to be established. By 1914 there were 4,791 pharmacies in Russia, including about 200 zemstvo pharmacies. After the Great October Revolution, the Council of People’s Commissars issued a decree (Dec. 28, 1918) on the nationalization of pharmacies; they were transferred to the authority of the People’s Commissariat of Public Health.

General management of pharmacies is carried out by the Pharmaceutical Board of the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR through pharmaceutical boards of the oblasts (krais) and republics. As of Jan. 1, 1970, there were over 20,000 pharmacies in the USSR (including municipal, central, regional in rural areas, and interhospital), existing at government expense. In addition, there were more than 3,000 hospital pharmacies on the government budget, as well as pharmacies of individual departments.

Special premises and equipment are set aside in the pharmacy for the preparation of medicines. All medicines dispensed by the pharmacy are subject to control. The preparation and dispensation of medications, their control, and their storage are performed according to the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR by persons with specialized pharmaceutical training. In capitalist countries, pharmacies are private-enterprise institutions. In most countries, prices for medications are not regulated.


Zmeev, L. F. Pervye apteki v Rossii. Moscow, 1887.
50 let sovetskogo zdravookhraneniia: 1917–1967. Moscow, 1967. Pages 176–182.




a combined scientific and practical discipline concerned with discovering, obtaining, investigating, storing, preparing, and dispensing medical products. Pharmacy and pharmacology together make up the science of drugs. Pharmacy includes pharmaceutical chemistry, drug preparation and packaging, forensic chemistry, pharmacognosy, and the organization and economics of pharmacy. A promising area of pharmaceutical research is biological pharmacy, which studies the relationship between the effect of a drug and the way it is manufactured and administered. Pharmacy specialists in the USSR are called farmatsevty. Pharmacy institutions include pharmacies, warehouses, analytic laboratories, research institutes, laboratories and enterprises that produce drugs, and establishments that collect and process medicinal plants.


Also known as pharmaceutics.
The art and science of the preparation and dispensation of drugs.
A place where drugs are dispensed.


the practice or art of preparing and dispensing drugs
References in periodicals archive ?
After a store had a physical inventory, a gross profit schedule was prepared by Phar Mor accountants.
After the fraud was uncovered, it was determined that Phar Mor's actual margins were really much lower than the budgeted 15.
The plaintiffs argued that had Coopers employed a more extensive and representative price test, they would have known what Phar Mor's gross margins actually were, no matter what the fraud team was doing to the gross profit reports.
Coopers explained to the jury that the price test was simply a reasonableness test intended to provide limited assurance that Phar Mor was properly applying its methodology for pricing and costing inventory.
And throughout the whole time that we audited Phar Mor, we continued to do the price test.
It was obvious to Coopers that while Phar Mor's costing method was applying one standard cost factor, Phar Mor was applying a variety of pricing strategies.
The primary testing was performed on Phar Mor's gross profit reports.
After the outside inventory service submitted a report of their physical count, Phar Mor accountants would prepare an inventory compilation packet.
The post fraud examination determined that many of Phar Mor's inventory compilations packets contained fraudulent journal entries.
In preparation for the trial, the packets that had been subjected to only limited testing were pulled from Phar Mor's files, many of them containing fraudulent journal entries.
Further, plaintiffs pointed to Coopers' inventory audit program for Phar Mor that included procedures requiring the examination of large and unusual entries.
The plaintiffs repeatedly played a video clip of one of the chief perpetrators of the Phar Mor fraud, the former CFO, saying that if Coopers had asked for the backup to any one of the fraudulent journal entries, "It [the fraud] would have been all over.