Phene


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Phene

 

an elementary, distinct genetic trait that is distinguishable in the phenotype of a given individual. The term was introduced in 1909 by the Danish geneticist W. Johannsen. Beginning in the 1960’s, it has been used in studies on population zoology and population botany to designate characters (markers) of the genotypic composition of populations, an approach permitting a genetic analysis of those species whose genetic investigation would otherwise be difficult or impossible. The isolation and classification of phenes is a major trend of research in genetics and population biology. The study of the distribution of phenes within populations and species is the task of phenogeography.

REFERENCES

Timofeev-Resovskii, N. V., and A. V. Iablokov. “Feny, fenetika i evoliutsionnaia biologiia.” Priroda, 1973, no. 5.
Johannsen, W. Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre mit Grundzügen der biologischen Variationsstatistik, 3rd ed. Jena, 1926.

A. V. IABLOKOV

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External collaboration is critical for achieving an effective innovation sourcing process (Almeida and Phene 2004; Azadegan and Dooley 2010).
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51) In a letter to Martin-Harvey following his 1907 production of Great Possessions, as recorded in his autobiography, the architect Phene Spiers wrote: 'Some years ago Professor Herkomer organized a play at Bushey, in which he recognized that the lighting was, after all, the most important element in a scene, and yours is the first occasion I have seen it so successfully managed on the [professional] stage.