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the spirit of active goodwill toward others as demonstrated in efforts to promote their welfare. The term is often used interchangeably with charity. Every year vast sums of money are collected for invaluable philanthropic purposes, and an increasing number of people participate in the work of collecting money through highly organized campaigns, the purpose of which is fund-raisingfund-raising,
large-scale soliciting of voluntary contributions, especially in the United States. Fund-raising is widely undertaken by charitable organizations, educational institutions, and political groups to acquire sufficient funds to support their activities.
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. In many countries philanthropy has been incorporated in government policy in the form of tax exemptions for contributions to charitable agencies. It has become so accepted that few now escape the demands of giving, and many important institutions are partly or wholly dependent on it.

In early times, charity was usually prompted by religious faith and helped to assure a reward in an afterlife, a notion found in Egypt many centuries before the Christian era. Throughout history, active participation in philanthropy has been a particular characteristic of Western societies. A traditional philanthropic ideal of Christianity is that of the tithe, which holds that one tenth of a person's income should go to charity. Charity is also important in Islam, Buddhism, and other religions. Foundationsfoundation,
institution through which private wealth is contributed and distributed for public purpose. Foundations have existed since Greek and Roman times, when they honored deities.
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—institutions that distribute private wealth for public purposes—also have an ancient history.

At the end of the 19th cent. it was recognized that corporations could play a part in financing voluntary agencies when the Young Men's Christian Association set a new pattern for raising money: intensive drives over a short period of time, the use of sophisticated techniques to raise money, and an emphasis on corporation donations. Other voluntary agencies soon copied this pattern, and it is still the typical practice for large-scale fundraising. During World War I, coordination of effort became a trend in philanthropic activity. In the United States, this coordination took the form of Community Chestscommunity chest,
cooperative organization of citizens and social welfare agencies in a city. Also known as a united fund, it has two purposes: to raise funds through an annual campaign for its member agencies and to budget the funds raised.
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, which combined a number of charities under one appeal, now known as the United Way.

Today the organization and coordination of philanthropy has eliminated much of the spontaneity of giving. They have also brought about a more rational assessment of ability to give as well as the introduction of scientific methods of ascertaining community and national needs and of raising money. The focus has also shifted from the relief of immediate need to long-term planning to prevent future need.


Appleseed, Johnny
nickname of John Chapman (c. 1775–1847), who traveled through the Ohio Valley giving away apple seeds and caring for orchards. [Am. Hist.: Collier’s, IV, 569]
Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1919)
steel magnate who believed the rich should administer wealth—for public benefit. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 83]
19th- and 20th-century family name of American industrialists and philanthropists. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1159]
Mellon, Andrew (1855–1937)
financier and public official; left large sums for research and art. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1743]
Rhodes, Cecil (1853–1902) British
imperialist; left millions of pounds for public service; notably, the Rhodes scholarships. [Br. Hist.: NCE, 2316]
Rockefeller, John D(avison)
(1839–1937) American multimillionaire; endowed many institutions. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 431]
References in periodicals archive ?
The philanthropist paid N293,000 to the management of each of the schools for onward remittance to WAEC.
Roque said it was the Chinese philanthropist who decided to build the rehabilitation center.
UHNW philanthropists in the US are most numerous, most generous and give most frequently, the report points out.
Founder and chief executive of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg and his wife have been ranked not just as America's top charity donor in 2013,but also the youngest according to philanthropists to top the list, according to The
Nasser Al-Rashid is the second billionaire philanthropist to make our list, primarily donating to the causes of higher education and childrenaACAOs welfare.
About Microsoft founder and philanthropist Bill Gates, in particular, she said, he "is using his vast resources to impose his will on the nation and to subvert the democratic process" (Ravitch, 2011, n.
India's biggest philanthropist Azim Premji of Wipro, transferred nearly two billion dollars of his wealth last December to an irrevocable trust that focuses on education and children's health and nutrition.
Summary: A new NBC series, The Philanthropist, is set to premiere based on entrepreneur and philanthropist Bobby Sager who ten years ago created the Sager Family Traveling Foundation & Roadshow aiming to empower leaders in struggling areas.
REMEMBERED: Robert Tressell was buried in Walton; CLASSIC: Tressell's Ragged Trousered Philanthropist
McGregor: Humanitarian, Philanthropist, and Detroit Civic Leader is the biography of the charitable Tracy W.
Heflin also was named Philanthropist of the Year in 2004 by the Association of Professional Fundraisers.
Philanthropist, financial advisor and investment manager William E.