When Philip Augustus
left for the Third Crusade, he issued the Ordinance of 1190, which radically changed the structure of his government by detaching "the two major governmental functions, finance and justice, from his itinerant court and stabilized them in Paris" (Baldwin, "Capetian Court" 76).
The importance of `the King's French' in the later 12th and 13th centuries brings us back to King Philip Augustus and the list of knights banneret where so many trouvere names may be found (illus.
We look a little further and find the lines which bind our trouveres or their families to King Philip Augustus become closer.
All but one joined the English (anti-Capetian) coalition in the wars between King John of England and King Philip Augustus of France, and all were forced to submit to royal authority in the years after the Battle of Bouvines (1214) and the collapse of the French expedition to conquer England in 1216, in which Robert of Bethune had enlisted as a constable in the English army.
For we now have in a hand a new text, only recently discovered at the Musee Conde in Chantilly, which represents the earliest example of royal historiography in Old French known at present and which was composed between 1217 and 1237, that is, around the same time as the Anonymous of Bethune's Chronique and at precisely that moment when the long thrust toward the recovery of royal power was brought to brilliant fruition by Philip Augustus.
Is he to be anathematised for rebelling against his father, Henry II, in alliance with Philip Augustus, destined to prove his bitterest and most unscrupulous opponent?
This danger was instrumental in throwing Richard into the arms of Philip Augustus, who three years earlier had acceded to the throne of France.
Furthermore the French king Philip Augustus, 1179-1293, one of Western Europe's most astute and opportunist monarchs, had constantly sought to exploit his position as Henry and Richard's feudal overlord to undermine their position as Duke of Normandy.
Worst of all, Richard fatally undermined England's fiscal base, namely revenue from royal demesne lands, at a time when Philip Augustus was vastly expanding the French royal demesne.
This outstanding accomplishment was facilitated by Philip's able handling and transformation of royal finances (comprehensively analyzed in John Baldwin's masterful study from 1986, The Government of Philip Augustus
, which Bradbury has, in effect, complemented with a political narrative).
Edward III, Henry V and Philip Augustus
were all employing the same strategy: using hunger as a weapon for siege warfare.
Duby reminds us that Andreas Capellanus, theoretician of courtly love, was capellanus in the service of Philip Augustus