Philip I


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Philip I

(Philip the Handsome), 1478–1506, Spanish king of Castile (1506), archduke of Austria, titular duke of Burgundy, son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian IMaximilian I,
1459–1519, Holy Roman emperor and German king (1493–1519), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. As emperor, he aspired to restore forceful imperial leadership and inaugurate much-needed administrative reforms in the increasingly
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 and Mary of BurgundyMary of Burgundy,
1457–82, wife of Maximilian of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I), daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold of Burgundy. The marriage of Mary was a major event in European history, for it established the Hapsburgs in the Low Countries and
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. Heir to his mother's Burgundian dominions (which included the Low Countries), he was held prisoner after her death (1482) by the city of Ghent, which objected to Maximilian's claim to be regent for Philip. Maximilian secured his son's release in 1485, but not until 1493 did he establish control over the Low Countries in Philip's name. In 1496, Philip married JoannaJoanna
(Joanna the Mad), 1479–1555, Spanish queen of Castile and León (1504–55), daughter of Ferdinand II and Isabella I. She succeeded to Castile and León at the death of her mother.
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, daughter of Ferdinand IIFerdinand II
or Ferdinand the Catholic,
1452–1516, king of Aragón (1479–1516), king of Castile and León (as Ferdinand V, 1474–1504), king of Sicily (1468–1516), and king of Naples (1504–16).
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 (of Aragón) and Isabella IIsabella I
or Isabella the Catholic,
1451–1504, Spanish queen of Castile and León (1474–1504), daughter of John II of Castile. In 1469 she married Ferdinand of Aragón (later King Ferdinand II of Aragón and Ferdinand V of Castile).
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. When Joanna became (1504) queen of Castile under her father's regency, Philip contested Ferdinand's rights and in 1506 became joint ruler of Castile with his wife. His death in the same year acutely aggravated Joanna's insanity. Ferdinand again became joint ruler of Castile with Joanna, while Philip's dominions in the Low Countries passed to his son (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles VCharles V,
1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
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).

Philip I,

1052–1108, king of France (1060–1108), son and successor of Henry IHenry I,
c.1008–1060, king of France (1031–60), son and successor of King Robert II. To defend his throne against his mother, his brothers Robert and Eudes, and subsequently against the count of Blois, he secured, at the cost of territorial concessions, the aid of
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. He enlarged, by arms and by diplomacy, his small royal domain. In order to prevent the union of England and Normandy under a single ruler, he consistently supported Robert IIRobert II
(Robert Curthose), c.1054–1134, duke of Normandy (1087–1106); eldest son of King William I of England. Aided by King Philip I of France, he rebelled (1077) against his father. Father and son became reconciled, but Robert was later exiled.
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 of Normandy (Robert Curthose). In spite of his efforts, royal power remained weak. Philip's practice of simony and his consequent opposition to the reforms of Pope Gregory VIIGregory VII, Saint,
d. 1085, pope (1073–85), an Italian (b. near Rome) named Hildebrand (Ital. Ildebrando); successor of Alexander II. He was one of the greatest popes. Feast: May 25.
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 brought him into conflict with the Holy See. Among the issues were simony and control of marriage policy, an issue fueled by Philip's private life. Philip repudiated his first wife, Bertha, daughter of the count of Holland, and married, over the opposition of the Roman Catholic Church, Bertrada of Montfort, wife of Count Fulk of Anjou, while both Bertha and Fulk were still living. Philip, excommunicated by popes Urban II and Paschal II, remained defiant until 1104. In his last years his son, Louis VILouis VI
(Louis the Fat), 1081–1137, king of France (1108–37). He succeeded his father, Philip I, with whom he was associated in government from c.1100. He firmly established his authority within the royal domain, suppressing brigandage by robber barons and besieging
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, ruled for him.