Philip the Bold

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Philip the Bold,

1342–1404, duke of Burgundy (1363–1404); a younger son of King John IIJohn II
(John the Good), 1319–64, king of France (1350–64), son and successor of King Philip VI. An inept ruler, he began his reign by executing the constable of France (whose office he gave to his favorite, Charles de La Cerda) and by appointing dishonest and
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 of France. He fought (1356) at Poitiers and shared his father's captivity in England. He was first made duke of Touraine (1360) and then duke of Burgundy. In 1369, Philip married Margaret, heiress of Flanders. With his brothers he was appointed by King Charles V as regent for the future Charles VICharles VI
(Charles the Mad or Charles the Well Beloved), 1368–1422, king of France (1380–1422), son and successor of King Charles V. During his minority he was under the tutelage of his uncles (particularly Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy), whose policies drained
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, and soon after the young king's accession (1380) Philip became the virtual ruler of France. He used his position to further his own dynastic ambition. In 1382 he led an expedition in support of his father-in-law, the count of Flanders, against the Flemish rebels under Philip van ArteveldeArtevelde, Philip van,
1340–82, Flemish popular leader, captain general of Ghent; son of Jacob van Artevelde. In the struggle between the so-called Goods (the propertied classes supported by the count of Flanders) and the Bads (the workers, led by the weavers), he put
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 and defeated them at Roosebeke (now Westrozebeke). In 1384 he inherited Flanders, in addition to Franche-Comté, Artois, Nevers, and Rethel, from his father-in-law. Through marriages of his children to the WittelsbachWittelsbach
, German dynasty that ruled Bavaria from 1180 until 1918.

The family takes its name from the ancestral castle of Wittelsbach in Upper Bavaria. In 1180 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I invested Count Otto of Wittelsbach with the much-reduced duchy of Bavaria, of
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 dynasty, Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland eventually came to Burgundy. Philip retired (1388) to his duchy at the beginning of the personal rule of Charles VI, but he returned to prominence when the king became insane (1392). Philip was the chief rival for power of the king's brother Louis d'OrléansOrléans, Louis, duc d'
, 1372–1407, brother of King Charles VI of France, whose chief counselor he was from 1388 to 1392. After 1392, when Charles VI suffered his first attack of insanity, Louis became involved in a long struggle for control with his uncle, Philip
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; his son, John the FearlessJohn the Fearless,
1371–1419, duke of Burgundy (1404–19); son of Philip the Bold. He fought against the Turks at Nikopol in 1396 and was a prisoner for a year until he was ransomed.
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, carried on the quarrel.


See J. L. A. Calmette, The Golden Age of Burgundy (1949, tr. 1962); R. Vaughan, Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State (1962).

Philip the Bold:

see Philip IIIPhilip III
(Philip the Bold), 1245–85, king of France (1270–85), son and successor of King Louis IX. He secured peaceful possession of Poitou, Auvergne, and Toulouse by a small cession (1279) to England.
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, king of France.