Philip III


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Philip III

(Philip the Bold), 1245–85, king of France (1270–85), son and successor of King Louis IXLouis IX
or Saint Louis,
1214–70, king of France (1226–70), son and successor of Louis VIII. His mother, Blanche of Castile, was regent during his minority (1226–34), and her regency probably lasted even after Louis reached his majority; she was his
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. He secured peaceful possession of Poitou, Auvergne, and Toulouse by a small cession (1279) to England. The marriage (1284) of his son (later Philip IVPhilip IV
(Philip the Fair), 1268–1314, king of France (1285–1314), son and successor of Philip III. The policies of his reign greatly strengthened the French monarchy and increased the royal revenues.
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) to Joan of Navarre and Champagne brought the first union of France with these territories. To gain a throne for another son, he invaded (1285) the kingdom of Aragón but was forced to retreat and died on the march. Philip's reign was dominated by his father's officials and policies.

Philip III,

1578–1621, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1598–1621) and, as Philip II, king of Portugal (1598–1621); son and successor of Philip IIPhilip II,
1527–98, king of Spain (1556–98), king of Naples and Sicily (1554–98), and, as Philip I, king of Portugal (1580–98). Philip's Reign
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 of Spain. He was as pious as his father, but lacked his intelligence and capacity for work. Preferring to pursue his own pleasure, Philip left the actual government to his favorite, the duque de LermaLerma, Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas, duque de
, 1553–1625, Spanish statesman, favorite of King Philip III. He became premier upon Philip's accession (1598) and controlled the government for 20 years.
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. Peace had been made with France by the Treaty of Vervins (1598) shortly before Philip III's accession. Peace with England followed in 1604, and in 1609 a 12-year truce was made with the United Provinces of the Netherlands. In Italy, however, Spain was involved in war (1615–17) with Savoy over MontferratMontferrat
, Ital. Monferrato, historic region of Piedmont, NW Italy, south of the Po River, now mostly in Alessandria prov. It is largely hilly, and wine, fruit, and cereals are produced. In the late 10th cent.
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 and in clashes with Venice. In 1620, Spain entered the Thirty Years WarThirty Years War,
1618–48, general European war fought mainly in Germany. General Character of the War

There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.
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 by sending troops into the Palatinate. The Spanish occupation of the ValtellinaValtellina
, Alpine valley of the upper Adda River, c.75 mi (120 km) long, in Lombardy, N Italy, extending from Lake Como to the Stelvio Pass. The main towns are Sondrio and Tirano. The valley is a fertile agricultural region, known for its wine.
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 in the same year also led (1622) to war with France. Philip's reign saw a growing decline in Spain's economy, partly as a result of the expulsion (1609–14) of the MoriscosMoriscos
[Span.,=Moorish], Moors converted to Christianity after the Christian reconquest (11th–15th cent.) of Spain. The Moors who had become subjects of Christian kings as the reconquest progressed to the 15th cent. were called Mudéjares.
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, while the grandees accumulated huge estates and the church prospered. Yet Spanish culture was in the midst of a glorious period which gave the world Cervantes, Lope de Vega, El Greco, and Zurbarán. Philip III was succeeded by his son, Philip IVPhilip IV,
1605–65, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1621–65) and, as Philip III, king of Portugal (1621–40); son and successor of Philip III of Spain.
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. His daughter, Anne of AustriaAnne of Austria,
1601–66, queen of France, daughter of King Philip III of Spain. Married to the French king Louis XIII (1615), she was neglected by her husband and sought the society of the court intriguer, Mme de Chevreuse.
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, married Louis XIII of France.
References in periodicals archive ?
He also normalizes the position, claiming that every king since antiquity has depended on a friend and confidant, and Philip III is no different from any other ruler in history.
As Gerritsen says: "Quiros' memorials were only intended to have limited circulation, for King Philip III and royal officials".
The late works of El Greco and the early works of Velazquez are considered within the context of the court of Philip III, a vibrant artistic period of 23 years (1598-1621).
One detects here a possible hint of criticism, which obviously could not be made explicit, of the policies of Louis IX and Philip III in their attempts to levy emergency taxes--not to mention forced loans, and new forms of indirect taxes--on nobles, townspeople, prelates, and religious houses.
As a metaphor the story of the handless heroine Carcayona may present "an idealized view of a gendered order" (27) but it does not provide "insights into the lives of the women of this community before Philip III ordered the Moriscos' expulsion from his kingdom", nor does it "deepen our understanding of the paradoxes and complexities of archival evidence to show how Moriscas, far more than mere passive victims, played active roles in resisting Christian dominance" (28).
Eumenes, who had been appointed "Royal General in Asia" by the authority of Philip III in 318, (26) was at this time fleeing east with Antigonus and his forces in pursuit.
The aim of this paper is not to press the claims of Philip II and his wife Cleopatra but to draw attention to the flaws in those for Philip III Arrhidaios and Eurydice," said Musgrave.
Although it was written at the request of the archbishop of Toledo, tutor to the future Philip III of Spain, and was dedicated to that monarch, and although it was in fact a contribution to the traditional "mirror of princes" genre of political writing, intended accordingly to remind the new king "of the principles of good kingship and of the rightful place of the clergy of Castile in the government of the monarquia espanola" (xi), it quickly became infamous in France and England.
Among his topics are the new history on Irish migration to Spain, success and failure of the Irish political strategy at the court of Philip III of Spain, the Madrid-Kilkenny axis in 1641, Ireland in 18th-century Spanish foreign policy, and the Irish in the Spanish colonies.
Even more improbably, a later portrait of Philip III aged 28 has him in the second of those 'child' armours, making it less a 'snapshot' than pure political make-believe.
Philip III approved the marriage of Cosimo II to Maria Magdalena de Austria, the sister of his wife, Margarita de Austria, and pledged part of the dowry.
This explains why Philip III welcomed the tyrannicidal De rege as an advice book that represented his own virtue as a ruler.