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Philip VI,1293–1350, king of France (1328–50), son of Charles of ValoisCharles of Valois
, 1270–1325, French prince and military leader, third son of Philip III and father of Philip VI. He dominated the reign in France of his nephew Louis X.
..... Click the link for more information. and grandson of King Philip IIIPhilip III
(Philip the Bold), 1245–85, king of France (1270–85), son and successor of King Louis IX. He secured peaceful possession of Poitou, Auvergne, and Toulouse by a small cession (1279) to England.
..... Click the link for more information. . He succeeded his cousin Charles IVCharles IV
(Charles the Fair), 1294–1328, king of France (1322–28), youngest son of Philip IV, brother and successor of Philip V. Charles continued his brother's work of strengthening the royal power.
..... Click the link for more information. , invoking the Salic lawSalic law
, rule of succession in certain royal and noble families of Europe, forbidding females and those descended in the female line to succeed to the titles or offices in the family.
..... Click the link for more information. to set aside both Charles's daughter and King Edward III of England, the son of Charles's sister. He was the first French king of the house of ValoisValois
, royal house of France that ruled from 1328 to 1589. At the death of Charles IV, the last of the direct Capetians, the Valois dynasty came to the throne in the person of Philip VI, son of Charles of Valois and grandson of Philip III.
..... Click the link for more information. . By the victory of Cassel, Philip reinstated the count of Flanders, whom he supported against the rebellious Flemings. After 1337, Philip's reign was dominated by the opening phases of the Hundred Years WarHundred Years War,
1337–1453, conflict between England and France. Causes
Its basic cause was a dynastic quarrel that originated when the conquest of England by William of Normandy created a state lying on both sides of the English Channel. In the 14th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. with England. In 1340 the French fleet was destroyed at Sluis. The following year Philip intervened in the succession conflict in Brittany (see Breton Succession, War of theBreton Succession, War of the,
1341–65, an important episode of the Hundred Years War. Duke John III of Brittany died in 1341 without heirs. The succession was contested by his half-brother, John de Montfort, who was backed by Edward III of England, and by Charles of
..... Click the link for more information. ) on behalf of his nephew Charles of Blois; Edward III landed in Britanny to aid Charles's rival John of Montfort. Philip and Edward signed a three-year truce in 1343, but it lasted only two years. Edward invaded Normandy and defeated (1346) Philip at CrécyCrécy
, officially Crécy-en-Ponthieu
, village, Somme dept., N France. A nearby forest is popular for camping. At Crécy, on Aug. 26, 1346, Edward III of England defeated Philip VI of France in the Hundred Years War.
..... Click the link for more information. . In 1347 the English captured CalaisCalais
, city (1990 pop. 78,836), Pas-de-Calais dept., N France, in Picardy, on the Straits of Dover. An industrial center with a great variety of manufactures, it has been a major commercial seaport and a communications center with England since the Middle Ages.
..... Click the link for more information. , which they held for nearly two centuries. To finance the war Philip resorted to extraordinary sources of revenue, including the sale of privileges to provincial assemblies, a general salt tax (gabelle), loans, and the debasement of the coinage. Late in his reign France was ravaged by the Black Death (see plagueplague,
any contagious, malignant, epidemic disease, in particular the bubonic plague and the black plague (or Black Death), both forms of the same infection. These acute febrile diseases are caused by Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis
..... Click the link for more information. ). Philip added Montpellier and the Dauphiné to the royal domain. His son, John IIJohn II
(John the Good), 1319–64, king of France (1350–64), son and successor of King Philip VI. An inept ruler, he began his reign by executing the constable of France (whose office he gave to his favorite, Charles de La Cerda) and by appointing dishonest and
..... Click the link for more information. , succeeded him.
Philip VI,1968–, king of Spain (2014–). The only son and youngest child of Juan Carlos IJuan Carlos I
, 1938–, king of Spain (1975–2014), b. Rome. The grandson of Alfonso XIII, he was educated in Switzerland and in Spain. Placed by his father, Don Juan de Borbón, under the care of Francisco Franco as a possible successor, he graduated from
..... Click the link for more information. , he was created prince of Asturias in 1977. As heir apparent, he traveled widely as a representative of Spain; he also engaged in philanthropic work and was a member of Spain's Olympic sailing team in 1992. He succeeded to the throne after his father abdicated. Philip married Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano, a journalist, in 2004; they have two daughters. His wife is the first commoner to become queen of Spain.
1293--1350, first Valois king of France (1328--50). Edward III of England claimed his throne, which with other disputes led to the beginning of the Hundred Years' War (1337)