Philip VI


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Philip VI,

1293–1350, king of France (1328–50), son of Charles of ValoisCharles of Valois
, 1270–1325, French prince and military leader, third son of Philip III and father of Philip VI. He dominated the reign in France of his nephew Louis X.
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 and grandson of King Philip IIIPhilip III
(Philip the Bold), 1245–85, king of France (1270–85), son and successor of King Louis IX. He secured peaceful possession of Poitou, Auvergne, and Toulouse by a small cession (1279) to England.
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. He succeeded his cousin Charles IVCharles IV
(Charles the Fair), 1294–1328, king of France (1322–28), youngest son of Philip IV, brother and successor of Philip V. Charles continued his brother's work of strengthening the royal power.
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, invoking the Salic lawSalic law
, rule of succession in certain royal and noble families of Europe, forbidding females and those descended in the female line to succeed to the titles or offices in the family.
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 to set aside both Charles's daughter and King Edward III of England, the son of Charles's sister. He was the first French king of the house of ValoisValois
, royal house of France that ruled from 1328 to 1589. At the death of Charles IV, the last of the direct Capetians, the Valois dynasty came to the throne in the person of Philip VI, son of Charles of Valois and grandson of Philip III.
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. By the victory of Cassel, Philip reinstated the count of Flanders, whom he supported against the rebellious Flemings. After 1337, Philip's reign was dominated by the opening phases of the Hundred Years WarHundred Years War,
1337–1453, conflict between England and France. Causes

Its basic cause was a dynastic quarrel that originated when the conquest of England by William of Normandy created a state lying on both sides of the English Channel. In the 14th cent.
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 with England. In 1340 the French fleet was destroyed at Sluis. The following year Philip intervened in the succession conflict in Brittany (see Breton Succession, War of theBreton Succession, War of the,
1341–65, an important episode of the Hundred Years War. Duke John III of Brittany died in 1341 without heirs. The succession was contested by his half-brother, John de Montfort, who was backed by Edward III of England, and by Charles of
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) on behalf of his nephew Charles of Blois; Edward III landed in Britanny to aid Charles's rival John of Montfort. Philip and Edward signed a three-year truce in 1343, but it lasted only two years. Edward invaded Normandy and defeated (1346) Philip at CrécyCrécy
, officially Crécy-en-Ponthieu
, village, Somme dept., N France. A nearby forest is popular for camping. At Crécy, on Aug. 26, 1346, Edward III of England defeated Philip VI of France in the Hundred Years War.
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. In 1347 the English captured CalaisCalais
, city (1990 pop. 78,836), Pas-de-Calais dept., N France, in Picardy, on the Straits of Dover. An industrial center with a great variety of manufactures, it has been a major commercial seaport and a communications center with England since the Middle Ages.
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, which they held for nearly two centuries. To finance the war Philip resorted to extraordinary sources of revenue, including the sale of privileges to provincial assemblies, a general salt tax (gabelle), loans, and the debasement of the coinage. Late in his reign France was ravaged by the Black Death (see plagueplague,
any contagious, malignant, epidemic disease, in particular the bubonic plague and the black plague (or Black Death), both forms of the same infection. These acute febrile diseases are caused by Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis
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). Philip added Montpellier and the Dauphiné to the royal domain. His son, John IIJohn II
(John the Good), 1319–64, king of France (1350–64), son and successor of King Philip VI. An inept ruler, he began his reign by executing the constable of France (whose office he gave to his favorite, Charles de La Cerda) and by appointing dishonest and
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, succeeded him.

Philip VI,

1968–, king of Spain (2014–). The only son and youngest child of Juan Carlos IJuan Carlos I
, 1938–, king of Spain (1975–2014), b. Rome. The grandson of Alfonso XIII, he was educated in Switzerland and in Spain. Placed by his father, Don Juan de Borbón, under the care of Francisco Franco as a possible successor, he graduated from
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, he was created prince of Asturias in 1977. As heir apparent, he traveled widely as a representative of Spain; he also engaged in philanthropic work and was a member of Spain's Olympic sailing team in 1992. He succeeded to the throne after his father abdicated. Philip married Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano, a journalist, in 2004; they have two daughters. His wife is the first commoner to become queen of Spain.

Philip VI

1293--1350, first Valois king of France (1328--50). Edward III of England claimed his throne, which with other disputes led to the beginning of the Hundred Years' War (1337)
References in periodicals archive ?
The methodical study of the historical material proves that the Salic Law was exploited indiscriminately in juridical battles by both the French and English, overturning the theory that the Salic Law served the rights of Philip VI of Valois, while in fact it was at first more adapted to support Edward III's English claims.
At the outset of the session, the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques briefed the Cabinet on his talks with Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah, the Emir of Kuwait, and Prince Charles, the Crown Prince of the United Kingdom and the Prince of Wales; the message received from President Abdelaziz Bouteflika of Republic of Algeria, and the phone call received from King Philip VI of the Kingdom of Spain, and they all dealt with overall regional and international events, bilateral relations between the Kingdom and those brotherly and friendly countries, and ways of enhancing them.
N General Assembly's 69th session, met a number of participating world leaders and heads of delegations, including Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, Iraqi President Mohammad Fuad Masum, Spain's King Philip VI, Peruvian President Ollanta Humala, Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto, Lebanese Prime Minister Tammam Salam, Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of Australia Tony Abbott, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, the founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum Professor Klaus Schwab and the president and CEO of the international Rescue Committee, David Miliband.
The French nobility, how ever, swiftly accepted Philip of Valois as King Philip VI, not because Edward III's claim lay through a woman, it seems, but because he was English and unsuitable.
Philip VI of Spain was keen to secure the best works of art in Charles's collection - built up in the 1620s and 1630s - especially as some of them had originated from Spain.