Characterization of the Bhanja serogroup viruses (Bunyaviridae): a novel species of the genus Phlebovirus and its relationship with other emerging tick-borne phleboviruses
We tested cattle and sheep serum for neutralizing antibodies using the virus microneutralization assay, described for phleboviruses
(7) in parallel with TOSV strain MRS2010-4319501 and SFSV strain Sabin.
Detection and identification of Toscana and other phleboviruses
by RT-nested-PCR assays with degenerated primers.
However, infection with 2 other phleboviruses
, mosquitoborne Rift Valley fever virus and tick-associated severe fever with thrombo-cytopenia syndrome virus, causes severe disease.
These data and the experimental inoculation data in our study indicate that the interferon response is critical for controlling pathologic changes of mice infected with phleboviruses
The presence of an NSs protein in phleboviruses
and orthobunyaviruses provides interferon resistance required to infect vertebrates efficiently (3,4).
The need for intensified international investigations to identify genetically related tickborne phleboviruses
with zoonotic potential is evident.
Two new phleboviruses
recently detected in Ixodes ticks in the northeastern United States are genetically unrelated to HRTV but raise the possibility that additional undiscovered phleboviruses
PCR for phleboviruses
(2) resulted in a PCR product of the expected size, and the sequence was most closely related to those of isolates belonging to the Sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV) species (Figure).
The Table summarizes the genetic and sequence features of the genome segments and deduced proteins of HIGV and several selected phleboviruses
filoviruses, arenaviruses, phleboviruses
, flaviviruses, and rickettsiae) as the cause of the patient's illness, a next-generation sequence approach was followed to detect a possible new infectious agent.
may have been caused by cross-reaction with antibodies directed against other known tick-associated phleboviruses
endemic to North America, such as Lone Star virus (5), which is not known to be pathogenic.