phobia

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phobia:

see neurosisneurosis,
in psychiatry, a broad category of psychological disturbance, encompassing various mild forms of mental disorder. Until fairly recently, the term neurosis was broadly employed in contrast with psychosis, which denoted much more severe, debilitating mental disturbances.
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Phobia

An intense irrational fear that often leads to avoidance of an object or situation. Phobias (or phobic disorders) are common (for example, fear of spiders, or arachnophobia; fear of heights, or acrophobia) and usually begin in childhood or adolescence. Psychiatric nomenclature refers to phobias of specific places, objects, or situations as specific phobias. Fear of public speaking, in very severe cases, is considered a form of social phobia. Social phobias also include other kinds of performance fears (such as playing a musical instrument in front of others; signing a check while observed) and social interactional fears (for example, talking to people in authority; asking someone out for a date; returning items to a store). Individuals who suffer from social phobia often fear a number of social situations. Although loosely regarded as a fear of open spaces, agoraphobia is actually a phobia that results when people experience panic attacks (unexpected, paroxysmal episodes of anxiety and accompanying physical sensations such as racing heart, shortness of breath).

The origin of phobias is varied and incompletely understood. Most individuals with specific phobias have never had anything bad happen to them in the past in relation to the phobia. In a minority of cases, however, some traumatic event occurred that likely led to the phobia. It is probable that some common phobias, such as a fear of snakes or a fear of heights, may actually be instinctual, or inborn. Both social phobia and agoraphobia run in families, suggesting that heredity plays a role. However, it is also possible that some phobias are passed on through learning and modeling.

Phobias occur in over 10% of the general population. Social phobia may be the most common kind, affecting approximately 7% of individuals. When persons encounter the phobic situation or phobic object, they typically experience a phobic reaction consisting of extreme fearfulness, physical symptoms (such as racing heart, shaking, hot or cold flashes, or nausea), and cognitive symptoms (particularly thoughts such as “I'm going to die” or “I'm going to make a fool of myself”). These usually subside quickly when the individual is removed from the situation. The tremendous relief that escape from the phobic situation provides is believed to reinforce the phobia and to fortify the individual's tendency to avoid the situation in the future.

Many phobias can be treated by exposure therapy: the individual is gradually encouraged to approach the feared object and to successively spend longer periods of time in proximity to it. Cognitive therapy is also used (often in conjunction with exposure therapy) to treat phobias. It involves helping individuals to recognize that their beliefs and thoughts can have a profound effect on their anxiety, that the outcome they fear will not necessarily occur, and that they have more control over the situation than they realize.

Medications are sometimes used to augment cognitive and exposure therapies. For example, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, such as propranolol, lower heart rate and reduce tremulousness, and lead to reduced anxiety. Certain kinds of antidepressants and anxiolytic medications are often helpful. It is not entirely clear how these medications exert their antiphobic effects, although it is believed that they affect levels of neurotransmitters in regions of the brain that are thought to be important in mediating emotions such as fear.

phobia

[′fō·bē·ə]
(psychology)
A disproportionate, obsessive, persistent, and unrealistic fear of an external situation or object, symbolically taking the place of an internal unconscious conflict.

phobia

Psychiatry an abnormal intense and irrational fear of a given situation, organism, or object
References in periodicals archive ?
He said: "The more the incident occurs, for example turbulence, the more the phobia increases.
A better understanding of how a phobia affects the perception of feared objects can help clinicians design more effective treatments for people who seek to overcome their fears, according to the researchers.
Every other fear or phobia is picked up as we get older or learnt from our parents.
Professor Robert Edelmann, patron of the National Phobics Society, said, "It would be unusual to find someone who doesn't have some fears about something, but it is a smaller number of people who have disabling clinical phobias.
Dr Economakis said: 'When a person is focused on a phobia, that is all they can see.
Despite finishing runner-up, former soccer star John Fashanu won hands down for the number of phobias he revealed.
Millions of working days are lost every year because of phobias and sufferers can undergo acute distress which places a heavy burden on their families.
There is a lack of awareness regarding this condition, as data clearly suggests that severe weather phobia is an underreported phenomenon," says Jesus Flores, III, founder and sole creator of StormPhobia.
One in ten said phobias had affected their relationships, while 7% said they had cost them their job, according to a survey of 2,000 people by ITV.
I have a 13-year-old granddaughter who has an injection phobia and it seems to be getting worse.
London, Dec 27 (ANI): While spiders and heights are common sources of anxiety, a fear of frozen peas and a dread of kneecaps have emerged as some of Britain's most bizarre phobias.
PHOBIAS are defined as a constant, extreme or irrational fear of an animal, object, place or situation that would not normally worry most people.