Phoenician


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Phoenician

1. a member of an ancient Semitic people of NW Syria who dominated the trade of the ancient world in the first millennium bc and founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean
2. the extinct language of this people, belonging to the Canaanitic branch of the Semitic subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family
www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/430phoenicia.html

Phoenician

 

the language of the Phoenicians, spoken from the second or first millennium B.C. to the early first millennium A.D. in Phoenicia and in Phoenician settlements in the Mediterranean, including Cyprus, Sicily, Sardinia, Massalia, Spain, and North Africa. In North Africa, Late Phoenician, or Punic, survived until the Arab conquest in the eighth century A.D. In Phoenicia itself, the language died out in the second century A.D. Phoenician is represented by inscriptions dating from the middle of the second millennium B.C to the second century A.D. in Phoenicia and to the third and fourth centuries A.D. in the western Mediterranean.

Phoenician belongs to the Canaanite subgroup of the Semitic languages. Its morphology and lexicon are similar to those of Hebrew. The alphabet used indicates that only 22 of the 29 consonants common to the Semitic languages were retained, a result of the loss of the opposition between certain sibilants and between uvular and pharyngeal fricatives. However, transcriptions in foreign languages show that certain consonant distinctions not reflected in the writing system were preserved in early Phoenician or in some dialects. The greatest differences between Phoenician and other Semitic languages were in the vowel system: Proto-Semitic *a and became Phoenician ō (Hebrew ā) and ū (Hebrew ō), respectively, as in Phoenician labōn (“white”) and lašūn (“tongue,” “language”). Phoenician used the Byblos pseudo-hieroglyphic script and, later, the Phoenician alphabet.

REFERENCES

D’iakonov, I. M. Iazyki Drevnei Perednei Azii. Moscow, 1967.
Shifman, I. Sh. Finikiiskii iazyk. Moscow, 1963.
Friedrich, J. Phönizisch-punische Grammatik. Rome, 1951.
Jean, C. F., and J. Hoftijzer. Dictionnaire des inscriptions sémitiques de l’ouest. Leiden, 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chapter three overviews the major cities of the Phoenician diaspora, starting with the entities on the Phoenician mainland (Arwad, Berytus, Byblos, Sarepta, Sidon, and Tyre) and expanding further out to Phoenician colonies (Carthage, Gades, Kition, Motya, and Utica).
The association organizes an annual forum at one of the 55 Mediterranean cities that form a league of locations with archaeological vestiges of the Phoenician civilization.
please contact: Phoenician IV Jason Futko Phoenician Corporation IV
The Phoenicians were great maritime people who had the flair of developing ship-building technology of excellent quality.
After deep studies of the document and after having scrutinized the Mina Hosn site, the consultative committee confirms that is not a Phoenician seaport.
The Phoenician, a resort in Scottsdale, US, from US-based Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide Inc (NYSE: HOT), has announced new family getaways.
To begin with, the Phoenician cities put themselves in positions of importance to the Assyrians, thereby gaining advantageous treatment from them, not only by producing valuable commodities and luxuries, but also by supplying the demands of the Assyrian 'war machine' for iron (Frankenstein 1979: 272).
This book contains the last four plays of Euripides: Electra, Phoenician Women, Bacchae, and Iphigenia at Aulis translated into English by Luschnig (classics, U.
We were looking for a new signature drink, something fun yet traditional," relates Phoenician food and beverage director Thomas "Mac" Gregory.
It was constructed in nine months in the style of a wreck of an ancient Phoenician ship found near Gibraltar Strait in the Mediterranean .
Buildings overlooking a previously discovered Phoenician complex more than 2,000 years old were found at the ancient city of Idalion, the island's Antiquities department said yesterday.
One of the transcripts of the purported conversations between the scandal-ridden Berlusconi and call girl Patrizia D'Addario have him boasting about his sprawling Sardinia villa, which apparently harbored various priceless Phoenician relics.