Phoenician

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Phoenician

1. a member of an ancient Semitic people of NW Syria who dominated the trade of the ancient world in the first millennium bc and founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean
2. the extinct language of this people, belonging to the Canaanitic branch of the Semitic subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family
www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/430phoenicia.html

Phoenician

 

the language of the Phoenicians, spoken from the second or first millennium B.C. to the early first millennium A.D. in Phoenicia and in Phoenician settlements in the Mediterranean, including Cyprus, Sicily, Sardinia, Massalia, Spain, and North Africa. In North Africa, Late Phoenician, or Punic, survived until the Arab conquest in the eighth century A.D. In Phoenicia itself, the language died out in the second century A.D. Phoenician is represented by inscriptions dating from the middle of the second millennium B.C to the second century A.D. in Phoenicia and to the third and fourth centuries A.D. in the western Mediterranean.

Phoenician belongs to the Canaanite subgroup of the Semitic languages. Its morphology and lexicon are similar to those of Hebrew. The alphabet used indicates that only 22 of the 29 consonants common to the Semitic languages were retained, a result of the loss of the opposition between certain sibilants and between uvular and pharyngeal fricatives. However, transcriptions in foreign languages show that certain consonant distinctions not reflected in the writing system were preserved in early Phoenician or in some dialects. The greatest differences between Phoenician and other Semitic languages were in the vowel system: Proto-Semitic *a and became Phoenician ō (Hebrew ā) and ū (Hebrew ō), respectively, as in Phoenician labōn (“white”) and lašūn (“tongue,” “language”). Phoenician used the Byblos pseudo-hieroglyphic script and, later, the Phoenician alphabet.

REFERENCES

D’iakonov, I. M. Iazyki Drevnei Perednei Azii. Moscow, 1967.
Shifman, I. Sh. Finikiiskii iazyk. Moscow, 1963.
Friedrich, J. Phönizisch-punische Grammatik. Rome, 1951.
Jean, C. F., and J. Hoftijzer. Dictionnaire des inscriptions sémitiques de l’ouest. Leiden, 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
By no means does she deny the existence of the Phoenician language or an ancient people referred to as Phoenicians.
During the event, participants discussed the development and marketing of three pilot cultural tourism itineraries along the Phoenicians Route.
Woolmer condenses current scholarly views on Phoenician infant mortuary rites to two options--either the Phoenicians sacrificed children alive or ritualistically disposed of stillborn infants--leaving out for his readers the possibility that ritual immolation of children could have been the result of Greco-Roman writers' biased and damning reports.
Organized by the American Committee for Tyre, one of 13 committees around the world affiliated with Lebanese UNESCO-accredited NGO the International Association to Save Tyre, the symposium coincides with an exhibition of the library's publications relating to the ancient Phoenician city.
By this period, almost a century would have passed from the time the Phoenicians established their first colonies in the area (Aubet 2001: 372-381; Pingel 2006), and their relationships with the locals were already well noted in several necropolises.
Gambin and his team, the shipwreck offers significant information about the seafaring and trade of the Phoenicians, of which very little was known.
The ship sailed through the Red Sea, the Cape of Good Hope and Gibraltar Strait in an attempt to revive the Phoenician heritage dating back to 2600 years ago, carrying the message of peace and cultural communication that Syria has always been keen to spread throughout history.
The Phoenicians were ill-served by their stationery.
Phoenicians captured the city in the middle of the fifth century BC and governed it for 150 years.
Phoenicians and Arabs form a part of European history that is European and Asiatic, and that makes Europe what it is.
Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi's private conversations with an escort may wind up getting him into trouble with the country's archaeological authorities as the secretly taped conversations revealed Berlusconi was hiding Phoenician artifacts.