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an observable fact or event; in philosophy the definitions and uses of the term have varied. In the philosophy of AristotleAristotle
, 384–322 B.C., Greek philosopher, b. Stagira. He is sometimes called the Stagirite. Life

Aristotle's father, Nicomachus, was a noted physician. Aristotle studied (367–347 B.C.
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 phenomena were the objects of the senses (e.g., sights and sounds), as opposed to the real objects understood by the mind. Later, phenomena were considered the observed facts and were contrasted with the theories used to explain them. Modern philosophers have used "phenomenon" to designate what is apprehended before judgment is applied. For Immanuel KantKant, Immanuel
, 1724–1804, German metaphysician, one of the greatest figures in philosophy, b. Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). Early Life and Works
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 a phenomenon was the object of experience and was the opposite of a noumenonnoumenon
, in the philosophical system of Immanuel Kant, a "thing-in-itself"; it is opposed to phenomenon, the thing that appears to us. Noumena are the basic realities behind all sensory experience.
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, the thing-in-itself, to which Kant's categories did not apply.



(1) An uncommon object or events; a rarity.

(2) A philosophical concept denoting an object or event that is perceivable by the senses. Aristotle used the term “phenomenon” to mean that which is apparent or illusory. G. W. von Leibniz, who defined phenomena as facts known through experience, distinguished a category of “real, well-established phenomena.” For G. Berkeley, D. Hume, and the advocates of positivism and Machism, phenomena are the data of consciousness—the empirical elements, in the subjective idealist sense—that constitute the only existing reality. According to I. Kant, a phenomenon is anything that can possibly be the object of experience; phenomena are juxtaposed to noumena, or “things in themselves.” In the phenomenology of E. Husserl, phenomena are directly given to consciousness as the contents of intentional acts.



a. the object of perception, experience, etc.
b. (in the writings of Kant) a thing as it appears and is interpreted in perception and reflection, as distinguished from its real nature as a thing-in-itself
References in periodicals archive ?
In recent years, there have been a number of developments that have increased our understanding of the physical processes that take place during the mixing, milling, extrusion and injection molding of elastomers.
Volume 1 describes the physical processes and identifies the main measurement devices used to measure the main parameters that are indispensable to implement all these simulation tools.
Three research projects involving the Indian and UK scientists will study different aspects of physical processes affecting the monsoon.
The information is designed to improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment to better serve the needs of society.
Overall, she covers introductory matters, material and energy balances, physical processes, and reactions and reactors.
The new mathematical model tightly couples a myriad of physical processes present during cosmic reionization, such as gas motion, radiation transport, chemical kinetics and gravitational acceleration due to star clustering and dark matter dynamics," Reynolds said.
Focusing on the physical processes of smart materials as well as the design and control of engineering systems, the book covers the fundamental physical properties of piezoelectric materials and mathematical representations of the electromechanical coupling in these materials.
This work details every aspect of resistance welding, from metallurgy and fundamental physical processes, such as electrothermal processes and discontinuities, to mechanical testing, process monitoring and control, weld quality and inspection, and numerical simulation.
Physical processes on land and their relationship to climate on a number of scales is another area that COLA is exploring.
Because, watching screen tests, we are postponing our own bodily delights, these films express the divide between vision and other physical processes (such as sucking and speaking).
The history of human land-use can yield valuable information about the social and physical processes driving regional landscape development and change.
Second, ESCO's sand reclamation is non-thermal, and utilizes only physical processes such as screening and air classification.

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