Physical-Culture and Sports Press
Physical-Culture and Sports Press
specialized newspapers, journals, magazines, bulletins, and other periodicals that promote physical culture and sports. These publications, the most important and effective means of distributing mass information, include documentary series, promotional and teaching materials, and theoretical scientific writings about physical culture and related fields.
More than 100 sports newspapers and journals were published in prerevolutionary Russia at various times, but the majority of them had small circulations and were published only one or two years; a few were published as long as five years. The first Russian publication was the journal for equestrian sports Ezhenedel’nik dlia okhotnikov do loshadei, which was published in Moscow beginning in 1823. The equestrian journal Konevodstvo i konnyi sport was first published in Moscow in 1842, and the chess journal Shakhmatnyi listok began publication in St. Petersburg in 1859. In the late 19th century sports publications appeared in other cities, including Kiev, Odessa, Riga, Saratov, and Tula. Often several publications would deal with the same sport. These newspapers and journals propagated bourgeois concepts of sports and tsarist policies concerning physical education. The most important publications were the journals Samokat (St. Petersburg, from 1894), Russkii Sport (Moscow, from 1909), and Gerkules (St. Petersburg, from 1912).
In the USSR, the physical-culture and sports press is part of the system of communist upbringing. It popularizes the mass physical-culture movement and sports and deals with organizational, methodological, scientific, and theoretical questions of the development of Soviet physical culture and sports. The chief tasks of the physical-culture and sports press were determined by the Program of the CPSU (1961) and the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU On Means for the Further Development of Physical Culture and Sports (1966). The physical-culture and sports press is urged to do everything possible to promote the development of physical culture and sports, to open the physical-culture movement to all people, and to participate in “bringing up a new man who harmoniously combines intellectual wealth, moral purity, and physical perfection” (Programma KPSS, 1977, pp. 120–21). Publications, according to the Program of the CPSU, should encourage amateur sports and help improve the sports skills of Soviet athletes. The physical-culture and sports press is under the direct supervision of the Committee of Physical Culture and Sports of the Council of Ministers of the USSR.
In the USSR, physical-culture and sports publications are put out by central, republic, and local organizations. Central organizations include the Committee of Physical Culture and Sports of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, the Voluntary Society for Cooperation With the Army, Air Force, and Navy (DOSAAF USSR), and the all-Union sports federations. Republic-wide publications are put out by the republic sports committees, trade union committees, DOSAAF USSR, and sports federations. Local publications include supplements to oblast and city newspapers, sports bulletins, and programs for athletic competitions. Most publications are intended for a wide circle of sports fans, while some are for athletes, coaches, teachers, and other specialists.
The first Soviet periodicals on physical culture and sports appeared in the 1920’s. These included the journals Sport (1918), Izvestiia fizicheskoi kul’tury, Teoriia i praktika fizicheskoi kul’tury, Fizkul’tura i sport, and Fizkul’taktivist (1927–31), all of which were published in Moscow. Other early Soviet publications included the journals Vseobuch i sport (Leningrad, 1922–24), Spartak (Leningrad, 1924–39), Vestnik fizicheskoi kul’tury (Kharkov, 1922–28), Krasnyi sport (Kiev, 1922–23), Sabchota fizkultura (Soviet Physical Culture; Tbilisi, 1927–32; in Georgian) and the newspaper Krasnyi sport (now known as Sovetskii sport). In the 1930’s, new newspapers and journals were published in the Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, and a number of cities in the Urals, and Siberia. In the 1920’s and 1930’s there were approximately 40 sports periodicals and other publications.
In 1976, 13 newspapers were published in 11 languages of the peoples of the USSR with a circulation of more than 5 million for each issue. The major all-Union newspaper is Sovetskii Sport (Moscow, since 1924; circulation for each issue, 3.9 million). The republic-wide newspapers are Sportivnaia gazeta (Kiev, since 1934; in Ukrainian; 324,000), Fizkul’turnik Belorussii (Minsk, since 1951; in Russian; 118,000), Fizkul’turnik Uzbekistana (Tashkent; published since 1934 in Uzbek and since 1932 in Russian; 101,000), Sport (Alma-Ata, since 1959; in Kazakh and Russian; 360,000), Lelo (Sports Gazette; Tbilisi, since 1934; in Georgian; 121,500), and Idman (Sports; Baku; published in Azerbaijani since 1935 and in Russian since 1932; 111,000).
Other prominent republic-wide publications are Sportas (Vilnius, since 1956; in Lithuanian; 93,000), Sports (Riga, since 1955; in Latvian; 68,000), Aiastani fizkul’turnik (Armenian Athlete; Yerevan, since 1956; in Armenian; 145,000), and Spordileht (Sports Gazette; Tallinn, since 1958; in Estonian; 46,000). Republic-wide newspapers are published one to five times a week.
City newspapers dealing with sports include Sportivnaia Moskva (published weekly by the newspaper Moskovskaia pravda since 1975; 55,000) and Sportivnaia nedelia Leningrada (since 1960; 60,000).
In 1976 the physical-culture and sports press comprised more than 20 scientific and theoretical journals and major sociopolitical, methodological, and informational publications, with a circulation of approximately 2 million. All-Union periodicals include Fizkul’tura i sport (Moscow, since 1922; 425,000), Teoriia ipraktika fizicheskoi kul’tury (Moscow, since 1925; 20,000), Sportivnye igry (Moscow, since 1955; 170,000), Legkaia atletika (Moscow, since 1955; 70,000), Sport v SSSR (supplement to the journal Sovetskii Soiuz; Moscow, since 1963; in Russian, English, French, German, Spanish, and Hungarian; 210,000), Sport za rubezhom (Moscow, since 1960; 30,000), Fizicheskaia kul’tura v shkole (Moscow, since 1958; 130,000), Shakhmaty v SSSR (Moscow, since 1921; 54,000), and Shakhmatnyi biulleten (Moscow, since 1955; 22,000).
The newspaper Sovetskii sport also publishes the weekly supplements Futbol-khokkei (Moscow, since 1960; 1.15 million) and 64 (since 1968; 100,000), which deals with chess and checkers.
Journals with republic-wide circulation include Sportivnaia zhizn’ Rossii (Moscow, since 1957; 170,000), Start (Kiev, since 1922; 73,000), Dambrete (Checkers; Riga, since 1959; in Latvian and Russian; 18,500), Šahs (Chess; Riga; in Latvian since 1959 and in Russian since 1960; 29,100), Kehakultuur (Physical Culture; Tallinn, since 1940; in Estonian; 14,000), Chadraki (Chess; Tbilisi, since 1971; 4,000), Shakhmatain Aiastan (Chess in Armenia; Yerevan, since 1972; in Armenian; 6,000), Martve (The Eaglet; deals with the physical education of schoolchildren; Tbilisi, since 1975; in Georgian; 15,000; supplement to the journal Shkola i zhizn’);, and Mektebde beden terbiiesi (Physical Culture in School; Baku, since 1976; in Azerbaijani; supplement to the journal Azerbaidzhan mektebi[Azerbaijani School]). Most journals are published once or twice a month.
The sports review SKDA, published in Berlin since 1973, is the official periodical of the Sports Committee of Friendly Armies. In 1976 the Organizing Committee of the Twenty-second Olympic Games in Moscow began publication of the illustrated periodicals Olimpiada–80 (in Russian, English, Spanish, German, and French) and Olimpiiskaia panorama.
Other publications on physical culture and sports include Biulleten’ Tsentr. shakhmatnogo kluba (Moscow, since 1958; 15,000), Gimnastika (Moscow, since 1971; 50,000), the annual Sport i lichnost’ (Moscow, since 1974; 100,000), and Teoriia i praktika fizicheskogo vospitaniia i sporta (Kiev, since 1968; in Ukrainian).
Physical culture and sports are dealt with in numerous central and local newspapers and other publications. The subject is well covered in the journals Turist, Kryl’ia Rodiny, Konevodstvo i konnyi sport, and Rybovodstvo i Rybolovstvo.
Specialists in physical culture and sports belong to the Federation of Sports Journalists of the USSR; the federation, founded in 1948 as an all-Union division of the sports press, became a federation in 1955. In 1956 the federation became a member of the International Sporting Press Association, which was founded in 1924 and as of 1977 comprised journalists’ organizations from 74 countries. In 1973 the Soviet representative N. S. Kiselev became vice-president of the association.
The state physical-culture and sports press is also highly developed in other socialist countries. As of 1976, approximately 100 newspapers, journals, and other periodicals were published in large numbers, including approximately 40 in the German Democratic Republic (GDR), approximately 20 in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, and more than ten in the Polish People’s Republic.
The most popular publications in the GDR include Boxring (Berlin, since 1962), DDR-Sport (Berlin, since 1959), FUWO (Die neue Fussball Woche; Berlin, since 1949), Leichtathlet (Berlin, since 1953), Medizin und Sport (Berlin, since 1961), Theorie und Praxis der Körperkultur (Berlin, since 1952), Turnen (Berlin, since 1964), Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der deutschen Hochschule für Körperkultur (Leipzig, since 1958; summaries in English, French, German, and Russian), and the daily newspaper Deutsches Sportecho (Berlin, since 1947).
The major sports publications in the Polish People’s Republic are Boks (Warsaw, since 1958), Kultura fizyczna (Warsaw, since 1947), Lekkoatletyka (Warsaw, since 1956), Sportowiec (Warsaw, since 1949), and the newspaper Przegląd sportowy (Warsaw, since 1945).
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic publishes Atletika (Prague, since 1949), Československý Šach (Prague, since 1906), Lyžařstvi (Prague, since 1915), Gól (Prague, since 1968), Stadión (Prague, since 1953), and the daily newspaper Československý sport (Prague, since 1953).
The major publications in the People’s Republic of Bulgaria are Vuprosi na fizicheskata kultura (Sofia, since 1956) and Narodenu sportu (Sofia, since 1944). The Hungarian People’s Republic publishes Sporteélet (Budapest, since 1965), and Cuba publishes LPV—listos para veneer (Havana, since 1961). The most important sports publication in the Socialist Republic of Rumania is Sport (Bucharest, since 1948), and the major publication in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is the daily newspaper Sport (Belgrade, since 1945).
The capitalist countries have no state-supported physical-culture and sports press. Sports newspapers and journals are published by private companies and sports associations and clubs. A number of countries, for example, the USA, France, Great Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), France, Japan, and Italy, publish many sports periodicals. These are usually informational publications with a large amount of advertising; many are of a commercial or extremely specialized nature. Most sports publications have almost insignificant circulations.
The most widely distributed publications in Great Britain are Football News (London, since 1970), The Health Education Journal (London, since 1943), World Sport (London, since 1936), Tennis World (London, since 1883), and World Soccer (London, since 1960).
The most important journals in the USA are AA U News and Amateur Athlete (Indianapolis, Ind.; since 1929), Chess Life and Review (New York, since 1933), Coach and Athlete (Montgomery, Ala.; since 1938), International Gymnast (Santa Monica, Calif.; since 1957), Research Quarterly of AAHPER (Reston, Va.; since 1930), Ring (New York, since 1922), Journal of Physical Education (New Britain, Conn.; since 1901), Skating (Boston, since 1923), Track and Field News (Los Altos, Calif.; since 1948), and World Tennis (New York, since 1953).
In the FRG the following are published: Athletik (Karlsruhe, since 1967), Box Sport (Cologne, since 1917), Deutsches Turnen (Celle, since 1856), Fussball-Woche (West Berlin, since 1925), Leichtathletik (West Berlin, since 1950), Leistungssport (Frankfurt, since 1971), Sportarzt und Sportmedizin (Cologne, since 1950), Sportwissenschaft (Schorndorf, since 1971; in English and German), and Tus-Turnen und Sport (Celle, since 1949). Prominent sports publications in France include Football Magazine (Paris, since 1960), Ski français (Paris, since 1937), and the newspaper L’Équipe (Paris, since 1946).
A special group of publications on physical culture and sports include international bulletins and journals printed in various languages.
Such publications include Bulletin officiel de I’UEFA (Bern, since 1960), FIFA News (Zürich, since 1963; in English, French, Spanish, and German), FIS-Bulletin (Bern, since 1958), International Journal of Sport Psychology (Rome, since 1970; in English and French), International Zeitschrift für Sportädagogik (Schorndorf, since 1963; in English; summaries in German, French, and Spanish), The Journal of Sports Medicine and PhysicalFitness (Turin, since 1961; in English; summaries in English, French, Spanish, and German), Olympic Review (Lausanne, since 1967; in English, French, and Spanish), Olympische Turnkunst (Frankfurt, since 1966), Schiess-Sport (Wiesbaden-Klarenthal, since 1961; in English, French, German, and Spanish), and World Hockey (Brussels, since 1969; in French and English).
A. K. VALIAKHMETOV