Picidae


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Picidae

[′pis·ə‚dē]
(vertebrate zoology)
The woodpeckers, a large family of birds in the order Piciformes; adaptive modifications include a long tongue and hyoid mechanism, and stiffened tail feathers.

Picidae

 

a family of birds of the order Piciformes. The body measures from 8 to 50 cm. There are three subfamilies: Picinae (true woodpeckers), Picumninae (piculets), and Jynginae (wrynecks). The Picidae are chiefly forest dwellers, adapted for life in trees. Their legs are short, with long toes and sharp claws. The strong bill and powerful neck muscles as well as the rigid tail feathers, which serve as a prop in climbing trees, enable the Picinae (the true woodpeckers) to hammer the bark and wood (in seeking food or excavating nesting holes). The Picumninae and Jynginae, which have soft tail feathers and weak bills, either do not hammer at the wood at all (the Jynginae) or are able to do so only in the softest, rotten wood (Picumninae). The Picidae have vermicular tongues, which the birds can extend very far in search of the tunnels of insects beneath the bark or in the wood itself. The insect is ensnared by either sticking to the tongue, which is covered with a sticky material, or becoming impaled on the barbed tip of the tongue. Green woodpeckers (Picas viridus) and the desert dwelling Andean flickers (Colaptes mpicola) and ground woodpeckers (Geocolaptes olivaceus) of South Africa feed primarily on the ground. The Picidae nest in tree crevices and within giant cacti; desert dwellers nest in burrows or among the rocks. The female lays three to seven white eggs; the young hatch naked. Only a few species are migratory.

There are 224 species distributed throughout the world except in Madagascar, Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and Polynesia. In the USSR there are 15 species, of which the best known are the black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius)’, the green woodpecker; the gray-headed woodpecker (Picus canus)’, the great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopus major), found in the forest zone; the three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus); and the wryneck. The principal food of the Picidae is insects which live under the bark and in the wood of trees; some eat ants from anthills. In cold weather, they also eat seeds, hammering apart the cones of spruce, pine, and other trees. In the spring, some species drink the sap of trees by drilling small holes in the bark. Depending on the circumstances, the Picidae either benefit or harm the forestry industry.

REFERENCES

Poznanin, L. P.Ekologicheskaia morfologiia ptits, prisposoblennykh k drevesnomu obrazu zhizni. Moscow-Leningrad, 1949.(Tr. In-ta morfologii zhivotnykh AN SSSR, vol. 3, issue 2.)
Formozov, A. N., V. I. Osmolovskaia, and K. N. Blagosklonov. Ptitsy i vrediteli lesa. Moscow, 1950.
Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 1. Moscow, 1951.

A. I. IVANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
2016a: Habitat preferences of Picidae woodpeckers in the agricultural landscape of SE Poland: is the Syrian woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus colonizing a vacant ecological niche?
Pocos ambientes del Parque Henri Pittier logran reunir a tantas familias indicadoras de la calidad ambiental como sus ambientes humedos, pues en los sotobosques de tierras bajas generalmente concurren solo las aves de Picidae, Furnariidae, Thamnophilidae y Troglodytidae (Verea y Solorzano, 1998, 2001, 2005; Verea et al.
number<-scan() # creates a database to store the diploid numbers # # the number preceding the colon demotes the numerical level of the next entry # 1: 76 80 80 76 76 80 80 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 86 78 76 78 74 78 76 76 78 68 # Columbidiae # 25: 86 78 74 76 76 76 76 80 80 # Troglodytidae # 34: 78 52 68 52 68 60 60 68 72 56 # Ciconiidae # 44: 78 92 80 82 82 80 # Anatidae # 50: 54 48 48 52 52 86 # Falconidiae # 56: 92 92 84 108 108 94 88 92 90 92 # Picidae # 66: Read 65 items # data is entered in separate strings for each taxa (in this case "family") # > family<-factor(rep(LETTERS[1:6],c(24,9,10,6,6,10))) # creates a sequence of letters A-F designating families such that there are 24 "A"s, 9 "B"s, etc.
Familia Picidae Melanerpes cactorum (d'Orbigny) (carpintero de los cardones) Estacion observada: Primavera, otono Estado poblacional: CI: Preocupacion menor
9;0,05]= 3,13; p=0,96), y las familias consumidoras de insectos mas abundantes fueron: Tyrannidae, Hirundinidae, Picidae y Thamnophilidae (Fig.
Number Average of duration Family/Species visits of visits (a) Diet (b) Picidae 3 120 [+ or -] 30 INS Veniliornis passerinus Reichenbach 1845 Furnariidae 5 35 [+ or -] 12 INS Pseudoseisura cristata Spix 1824 Tyrannidae 5 22 [+ or -] 10 INS Machetomis rixosa Vieillot 1819 Mimidae 10 18 [+ or -] 5 OMN Mimus saturninus Lichtenstein 1823 Coerebidae 10 20 [+ or -] 8 OMN Coereba flaveola Linnaeus 1758 Thraupidae 8 30 [+ or -] 5 GRA Lanio pileatus Wied 1821 Paroaria dominicana 62 210 [+ or -] 20 GRA Linnaeus 1758 Icteridae 4 45 [+ or -] 8 FRU Icterus jamacaii Gmelin 1788 Fringillidae 28 180 [+ or -] 6 OMN Euphonia chlorotica Linnaeus 1766 Visitation frequency Average dispersal Family/Species (visits/h) distance (c) Picidae 0.
It has been observed that scaly-bellied woodpecker has clutch size almost similar to other members of the family Picidae e.
La mayor cobertura se presento con las familias Cardinalidae, Picidae y Mimidae con un 100% de cobertura, seguido por Thauripidae, Trogloditidae, Bucconidae, Coerebidae y Polioptilidae con un 88% de cobertura.
pluricinctus, Ramphastos tucanus; Null: Pteroglossus inscriptus, Selenidera reinwardtii PICIDAE -- Real: Celeus grammicus, Dtyocopus lineatus; Null: Piculus chrysochloros, Celeus elegans, Campephilus rubricollis.
With regard to New World nectarivorous birds, especially in tropical areas, Trochilidae (hummingbirds) are the main pollinating species, but there are other flower visitors, such as the Thraupidae (tanagers), Icteridae (blackbirds), Contigidae (cotingas), Picidae (woodpeckers), Emberizidae (flowerpiercers) and Coerebidae (honeycreepers), which are adapted to a nectar diet (Rocca and Sazima, 2008).