Pierre Curie


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

Curie, Pierre

 

Bom May 15, 1859, in Paris; died there Apr. 19, 1906. French physicist. Member of the French Academy of Sciences (1905). Upon graduating from the University of Paris (1877), Curie worked there as a laboratory assistant. From 1882 to 1904 he worked at the Ecole de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle in Paris, first as director of research and then as a professor. Beginning in 1904 he was a professor at the University of Paris. His principal works were devoted to the physics of crystals, magnetism, and radioactivity. Together with his brother, Paul-Jean Curie, he discovered and investigated the phenomenon of piezoelectricity (1880). Curie also studied (1884–45) problems of the symmetry of crystals (in particular, he formulated Curie’s principle) and the problem of symmetry in physics in general (1894). As a result of his studies in magnetic phenomena, Curie established the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic bodies on the absolute temperature (Curie’s law) and discovered a special temperature, above which ferromagnetic materials become paramagnetic (Curie point).

From 1898, Curie and his wife, M. Sklodowska Curie, conducted studies on radioactivity. They discovered polonium and radium (1898) and determined the complex nature of the radiation emitted by radium and the coloration of glass and porcelain by this radiation (1899). In 1903, Pierre Curie discovered the spontaneous evolution of heat by radium salts. He also studied the biological effects of radioactivity. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1903.

WORKS

Oeuvres. Paris, 1908.
In Russian translation:
Izbrannye trudy. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966. (The series Klassiki nauki.)

REFERENCES

Curie, M. Pierre Curie. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from French.)
Shpol’skii, E. V. “Zhizn’ i deiatel’nost’ P’era Kiuri.”
Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk, 1956, vol. 58, issue 4.
Starosel’skaia-Nikitina, O. A. “Zhizn’ i tvorchestvo P’era Kiuri.” Tr. In-ta istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki, 1957, vol. 19.
References in periodicals archive ?
Details of the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics awarded to Antoine Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie, and Marie Curie.
Con Pierre Curie y Henri Becquerel, Marie fue galardonada con el Premio Nobel de Fisica en 1903: "En reconocimiento a los extraordinarios servicios que han prestado por sus investigaciones conjuntas sobre los fenomenos de radiacion descubiertos por el profesor Henri Becquerel".
Pierre Curie was run over and killed in the street by a horse wagon in 1906.
La muerte de Pierre Curie, ocurrida en 1906, no detuvo las investigaciones de Marie Curie, quien en 1910 publico su obra Tratado de radiactividad y en 1911 recibio el Premio Nobel de Quimica por el "descubrimiento del radio y el polonio y el aislamiento del radio".
Pierre Curie was a Parisian doctor's son, born in 1859, who studied at the Sorbonne and in 1882 was appointed head of the laboratory at the School of Physics and Chemistry in Paris.
Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Theodore Roosevelt, Pierre Curie, and Roy Chapman Andrews.
1902 Marie Curie and husband Pierre Curie isolated radium for the first time.
Piezoelectric materials - substances that generate electricity when subjected to pressure or concussion - have been known since the 1880s when Pierre Curie, husband of Marie, discovered them.
1906: Pierre Curie, French physicist who worked with his wife Marie on radioactivity and who discovered radium, was killed in a carriage accident in Paris.
It would be a beautiful thing," Pierre Curie wrote to Marie, "if we could spend our life near each other, hypnotized by our dreams: your patriotic dream, our humanitarian dream and our scientific dream.