Pistacia


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Pistacia: Pistacia lentiscus

Pistacia

 

a genus of nut-bearing shrubs and trees of the family Anacardiaceae. The leaves are usually deciduous, but occasionally evergreen, ternate, or pinnate. The flowers are unisexual, and they grow in axillary panicles. The plant is dioecious, and the fruit is a drupe.

The genus embraces approximately 20 species, which are native to Syria and Asia Minor. The USSR has two wild species, which grow in the Uzbek SSR, the Tadzhik SSR, and the Azerbaijan SSR; these are the common pistachio (P. vera) and the Turk terebinth (P. mutica). Four introduced species also grow in the USSR: the mastic tree (P. lentiscus), P. terebinthus, P. atlantica, and the Chinese pistachio (P. chinensis). Trees of the genus are most widely cultivated in Italy, Spain, Greece, and the USA. In the USSR they are grown in Middle Asia, Transcaucasia, and the Crimea.

The most common species of Pistacia is the common pistachio. The plant is usually a deciduous tree with numerous trunks that measures 5–10 m in height; it sometimes grows as a shrub with a dense crown. The leaves are odd-pinnate and leathery. The plant blossoms in April. The monospermous fruits (pistachio nuts) measure 1–2 cm in length and 0.5 cm in width; the kernel, which constitutes 47–49 percent of the nut, contains 54–60 percent fat, 18–25 percent protein, and as much as 16.7 percent nonnitrogenous extractive matter. The kernel is eaten fresh or roasted and is used in the confectionery industry. Vegetable oil is also extracted from the nuts. Wood from the pistachio tree is valued in the joining industry, and high-quality resins are obtained by tapping the trees. Galls on the leaves contain tannins (30–40 percent) and dye substances.

The common pistachio is drought-resistant and can tolerate temperatures as low as – 25°C. The plants reproduce by means of seeds, layers, or suckers and are commonly grafted. Grafted plants begin to bear fruit in the fourth or fifth year, and seed-grown plants in the ninth or tenth year. A grafted tree yields 30–45 kg of nuts annually after eight or ten years. The most popular varieties of pistachio include Kishlinskaia, Vakhshskaia, and Ekstra.

The Turk terebinth, a tree measuring 10–20 m in height, is found in Asia Minor, on the Balkan Peninsula, and in the USSR (the Crimea and the Caucasus). The tiny, inedible fruits contain up to 60 percent fat, from which industrial oil is obtained; the oil cake is fed to cattle. The resin is used to make turpentine and is employed in the paint and varnish industry.

REFERENCE

Kachalov, A. A. Derev’ia i kustarniki. Moscow, 1970.

V. A. KOLESNIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of isolated compounds from Pistacia Integerrima.
This reserve aims at protecting the oak and pistacia trees and maintaining the rare species of plants.
Pistacia integerrima leaf galls were purchased from the local market of Pune, India and authenticated at Regional Research Institute (Ayurveda), Pune.
There are a further nine species within the pistacia, but these other members are found in the Mediterranean and southwest Asia, with smaller nuts and thinner shells.
The vegetation in the lower elevation (below 800 m) and the sunny aspects (the southern range of the mountainous mass) represents a Eu-Mediterranean community dominated by Pinus brutia with associated species such as Olea oleaster, Quercus ilex, Quercus coccifera, Pistacia terebinthus, Paliurus spina-christi, Spartium junceum, Cistus cretaegus, Strax officinalis in Buldan district.
Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Quercus calliprinos, Pistacia lentiscus, and Ceratonia siliqua) by goats.
To prevent such epidemics from occurring, and since some resistance to the disease exists in the present Pistacia germplasm, breeders need to work closely with plant pathologists to develop disease resistant varieties of the pistachio tree.
With an emphasis on China and Europe, the campaign intends to extoll the nutritional and flavor benefits of the nut of the Pistacia vera tree, which came into commercial production in the 1970's in the United States.
Pistagremic acid a new leishmanicidal triterpene isolated from Pistacia integerrima Stewart.
According to this study, the highest rating among the drugs commonly used in ITM for the treatment of gastric clearance of wet materials such as mucus(serous or Phlegm), which is according to avicenna is the most stomach dis-temperament was awarded to pistacia atlantica.
The quantity of mortars, grinding stones, pestles and pounders (Shaffrey 2007) indicated intensive exploitation of wild flora which included Hordeum sponteneum, Pistacia sp.
Biomass sources such as Jatropha Curcas, Pistacia chinensis Bunge, Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, and many others are discussed in this section.