Pius II


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Pius II

(pī`əs), 1405–64, pope (1458–64), an Italian named Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini (often in Latin, Aeneas Silvius), renamed Pienza after him, b. Corsigniano; successor of Calixtus III. He attended the Council of Basel (1432; see Basel, Council ofBasel, Council of,
1431–49, first part of the 17th ecumenical council in the Roman Catholic Church. It is generally considered to have been ecumenical until it fell into heresy in 1437; after that it is regarded as an anticouncil.
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) as a layman and joined its secretariat. He was an opponent of Pope Eugene IV and in 1439 became secretary to Antipope Felix V (Amadeus VIIIAmadeus VIII
, 1383–1451, count (1391–1416) and duke (from 1416) of Savoy, antipope (1439–49) with the name Felix V. In 1434 he appointed his son regent of Savoy and retired to the hermitage of Ripaille, on Lake Geneva, which he had founded.
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 of Savoy). Meanwhile he gained a European reputation as a humanist scholar. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick IIIFrederick III,
1415–93, Holy Roman emperor (1452–93) and German king (1440–93). With his brother Albert VI he inherited the duchies of Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola.
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 made him court poet and in 1442 secretary to the chancery in Vienna. In 1445, Piccolomini abandoned his rather dissipated way of life and began a new career. He went to Rome to submit to the pope and became (1446) a priest. He was made bishop of Trieste (1447), bishop of Siena (1449), and a cardinal (1456). As pope, Pius issued (1460) a bull condemning as heretical the conciliar theory (the doctrine that ultimate authority in the church rested in the general council rather than the pope). He was in continual dispute with Louis XI of France, who repeatedly attempted to control ecclesiastical affairs. He also quarreled with the Bohemian king George of PodebradGeorge of Podebrad
, 1420–71, king of Bohemia (1458–71). A Bohemian nobleman, he became leader of the Utraquists, or the moderate Hussites, in the wars between Hussites and Catholics.
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, rejecting (1462) the latter's petition that he confirm the Compactata (see HussitesHussites
, followers of John Huss. After the burning of Huss (1415) and Jerome of Prague (1416), the Hussites continued as a powerful group in Bohemia and Moravia. They drew up (1420) the Four Articles of Prague, demanding freedom of preaching, communion in both kinds (i.e.
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). Such quarrels hampered him in achieving his aim of uniting the Christian rulers in a crusade against the Turks. He was about to set out on a crusade himself when he died. He was succeeded by Paul II. Pius did not patronize art or literature, despite his own literary interests and considerable literary talents. Of his works the most useful is his autobiography, the only one written by a pope.

Bibliography

See L. C. Gabel, ed., Pius II: Memoirs of a Renaissance Pope (1959, repr. 1962); R. J. Mitchell, The Laurels and the Tiara (1962).

Pius II

pen name Aeneas Silvius, original name Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini. 1405--64, Italian ecclesiastic, humanist, poet, and historian; pope (1458--64)
References in periodicals archive ?
That this could and did occur is made abundantly clear in a decree of the town council of Siena, dated 5 October 1460, stating that "any member of the court of our Lord Pope Pius II of Siena who wishes so .
The record of the Penitentiary from the pontificate of Pius II (14581464) contains 4,195 petitions for receiving a grace concerning marriage matters.
The visit to Siena of Pope Pius II in 1460 and the establishment of the Novesco regime of 1487 were points of major change in the urban process as the city responded to its citizens' evolving needs and the goals of maintenance and improvement.
Only two years afterwards, Piccolomini emerged from the papal conclave with the Virgilian name of Pope Pius II.
Subsequent political intrigue induced Pope Pius II to confirm the ancient metropolis reestablished in Kiev in 1458 and to confirm Gregory as its metropolitan.
Renaissance humanists include scholars and poets such as Petrarch, often called the first humanist; instigators of " the revival " such as the Greek scholar Chrysoloras; the philologists Valla and Erasmus; archaeologists and antiquarians such as Poggio and Ciriaco; the educators Vittorino of Feltre and Guarino of Verona; philosophers, historians, and men of letters such as Pius II and Leonardo Bruni; and a host of secretaries, chancellors, legates, and other royal advisors who, having imbibed the spirit of the period, used their mastery of eloquence in practical labors.
After entering clerical service, he was supported by Pope Pius II (the humanist Enea Silvio Piccolomini) and Cardinal Giacomo degli Ammannati, then by the papal condottiere Federico da Montefeltro.
Chapter 3 is devoted almost entirely to Pius II, who combined humane traits with a "surprising bellicosity and sense of military obligation as pope, almost in the style of Gregory VII as 'dux and pontifex'" (53).
First is Nikolaos Sekoundinos's Defamilia Otthomanorum epitome ad Aeneam Senarum episcopum, a short work on the Ottoman sultans written for Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini two years before he became Pope Pius II in 1458.
In 1463, a contrite Pope Pius II (1458-64) issued an official retraction of his earlier, pro-conciliar writings.
Guelfism, at least, still provided a suitable ideological framework for some political actors: Jacopo Piccinino and the bracceschi ended up as Guelfs because they fought for particular liberties and supported the Angevin claim to the Kingdom of Naples against the Ghibelline entente between the Sforza and the Aragonese kings backed by the Medici and by popes such as Pius II.
Pius II on the Errors of his Youth"; and Zweder von Martels, "'More Matter and Less Art': Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini and the Delicate Balance between Eloquent Words and Deeds" and "The Fruit of Love: Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini about his Illegitimate Child.