Plant cell


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Plant cell

The basic unit of structure and function in nearly all plants. Although plant cells are variously modified in structure and function, they have many common features. The most distinctive feature of all plant cells is the rigid cell wall, which is absent in animal cells. The range of specialization and the character of association of plant cells is very wide. In the simplest plant forms a single cell constitutes a whole organism and carries out all the life functions. In just slightly more complex forms, cells are associated structurally, but each cell appears to carry out the fundamental life functions, although certain ones may be specialized for participation in reproductive processes. In the most advanced plants, cells are associated in functionally specialized tissues, and associated tissues make up organs such as the leaves, stem, and root. See Cell walls (plant)

Plant and animal cells are composed of the same fundamental constituents—nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and various inorganic substances—and are organized in the same fundamental manner. A characteristic of their organization is the presence of unit membranes composed of phospholipids and associated proteins and in some instances nucleic acids.

Perhaps the most conspicuous and certainly the most studied of the features peculiar to plant cells is the presence of plastids. The plastids are membrane-bound organelles with an inner membrane system. Chlorophylls and other pigments are associated with the inner membrane system. See Cell (biology), Cell plastids, Chlorophyll

References in periodicals archive ?
These fibres then wrap around the cell as the major component of the plant cell wall, providing rigidity, flexibility and defence against internal and external stresses.
DianaPlantSciences' ability to design and commercialise the plant cell culture technology facilitates the culture of desired plant components in bioreactors, doing away with the need to grow an entire plant.
Novel ingredients can be developed by plant cell culture technology from a wide range of plants.
There are multiple advantages to producing pharmaceuticals via plant cell fermentation," said Magnus Precht, who has joined Phyton as General Manager: "Phyton's plant cell fermentation technology enables the production of known and novel plant-derived complex small molecules as well as biopharmaceuticals from transgenic plant cells.
The scientists will use infrared spectroscopy to identify and characterize mutant genes that affect plant cell wall architecture.
Juicing produces the highest levels of antioxidants and other phytochemicals by breaking down the plant cell walls that contain nutrients without the price that using heat imposes.
Harald Heckenmueller, General Manager, stated, "Phyton has created much innovation and a number of patents around plant cell fermentation and taxanes such as paclitaxel and docetaxel.
However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes; this resistance is known as biomass recalcitrance.
This enzyme metabolizes sugar and delivers carbon for plant cell growth and other uses.
Callose is a beta--1, 3-glucan polymer of glucose, a major component of inducible plant cell wall apposition and a barrier against fungal infection.
Plant Polysaccharides, an exceptional new volume in Wiley-Blackwell's successful Annual Plant Reviews series, covers the polysaccharides and proteins that form the fundamental architecture of the plant cell wall, and the genes that encode the cellular machinery that synthesizes them.
Naolys, a French company specializing in plant cell culture, recently rolled out new active plant cells with a balancing and repairing activity for hair from the Lilac (syringa vulgaris).