Plant cell

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Plant cell

The basic unit of structure and function in nearly all plants. Although plant cells are variously modified in structure and function, they have many common features. The most distinctive feature of all plant cells is the rigid cell wall, which is absent in animal cells. The range of specialization and the character of association of plant cells is very wide. In the simplest plant forms a single cell constitutes a whole organism and carries out all the life functions. In just slightly more complex forms, cells are associated structurally, but each cell appears to carry out the fundamental life functions, although certain ones may be specialized for participation in reproductive processes. In the most advanced plants, cells are associated in functionally specialized tissues, and associated tissues make up organs such as the leaves, stem, and root. See Cell walls (plant)

Plant and animal cells are composed of the same fundamental constituents—nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and various inorganic substances—and are organized in the same fundamental manner. A characteristic of their organization is the presence of unit membranes composed of phospholipids and associated proteins and in some instances nucleic acids.

Perhaps the most conspicuous and certainly the most studied of the features peculiar to plant cells is the presence of plastids. The plastids are membrane-bound organelles with an inner membrane system. Chlorophylls and other pigments are associated with the inner membrane system. See Cell (biology), Cell plastids, Chlorophyll

References in periodicals archive ?
Novel ingredients can be developed by plant cell culture technology from a wide range of plants.
There are multiple advantages to producing pharmaceuticals via plant cell fermentation," said Magnus Precht, who has joined Phyton as General Manager: "Phyton's plant cell fermentation technology enables the production of known and novel plant-derived complex small molecules as well as biopharmaceuticals from transgenic plant cells.
The scientists will use infrared spectroscopy to identify and characterize mutant genes that affect plant cell wall architecture.
The scientists have cloned the gene and also developed markers that allow molecular identification of three mutations of the gene, which is involved in forming lignin, a plant cell wall hardening substance.
The research is based on developing plant cell culture and fermentation techniques, as well as novel extraction and separation technologies.
The researchers found that in stably transformed HeLa cells, the integration event occurred at the right border of the Ti plasmid's T-DNA, exactly as would happen when it is being transferred into a plant cell genome.
Juicing produces the highest levels of antioxidants and other phytochemicals by breaking down the plant cell walls that contain nutrients without the price that using heat imposes.
In the very least, plant cell culture experiments (and animal cell culture ones, for that matter) should be designed so they can be activated and terminated in Space at will (by the nature of the experimental design, by automatic means, or by human intervention).
A German botanist, Hugo von Mohl (1805-1872), studied plant cells assiduously.
Our tremendous capacity to produce paclitaxel from plant cell fermentation eliminates reliance on yew tree plantations and their inherent problems related to the environment, sustainability, reliability, and consistent quality.
Despite significant advances in understanding the mechanism controlling the mycorrhizal symbiosis, we still do not really understand how plants influence the fungal growth through the plant cell wall, and how the AM fungus is able to cross the plant cell wall.
Dow Agrosciences LLC (Indianapolis, IN) has patented a plant cell culture for producing proteinaceous agents comprising a plant cell line stably transformed to express a transgene encoding a proteinaceous agent and a growth medium which supports the growth of said plant cell culture but which does not support the growth of Mycoplasmataceae and contains no materials of animal origin.