As black mangroves become more abundant in the northern GOM, their pneumatophores
may provide more protection from predators than Spartina stems, and therefore improve the refuge value of estuarine nursery habitat for fishery species, including penaeid shrimps.
Summary of mixed-model ANOVAs testing for effects of substrate treatment (pneumatophore
+ shell, and pneumatophore
+ oyster) and tidal elevation (low, mid, and high) on the abundance of new (shell height, <1.
And there is a fossilized mangrove bed, a tangle of roots and pneumatophores
frozen and aeons old, yet instantly recognizable.
3], method EtOAc, BuOH, aqueous residue, precipitate extracts of stem bark, and negative control (acetone, MeOH) MeOH extract Antihyperglycemic Lowering  of bark serum glucose level in hyperglycemic mice following of glucose loading Antinociceptive Acetic-acid- induced writhings in mice MeOH extract Anticancer In vitro cell of both activity viability and leaf and In vivo stem powder screening  assay against B16 mouse melanoma and EAC (ehrlich ascites carcinoma) in mice model chromatography TLC characterization (qualitative and quantitative DPPH assay), HPLC, 1H NMR, FTIR spectral analysis, and bioautography screening EtOH Comparative Minimum  extracts of antibacterial Inhibitory pneumatophores
activity Concentration (MIC) method
The aerating prop roots of the mangrove plant (Rhizophora racemosa) above the ground or especially above water with its rich production of exudates, death and decay, are extensively interwoven in close physical proximity to the negatively orthogravitropic pneumatophores
of Avicennia sp supplying air through the soft, spongy tissue to the roots and microorganisms in the anoxic region of the mud.
distinct; secondary roots branched; pneumatophores
The cypress knees area, technically called pneumatophores
, are really upright growths from the roots, said to help support the trees while aerating the underwater root system.
Deciduous trees; pneumatophores
normally present; leaves two-ranked on short shoots, alternate, linear to linear-lanceolate, flattened, 3-17 mm long; pollen cones globose in pendent axillary racemes or panicles; ovulate cones 20-50 mm in diameter, subglobose, 5-10 scales, valvate, thin and woody; seeds trigonous, wingless.
and large gas spaces within the roots supply oxygen to the root cells.
Each type of mangrove has developed a different solution to this problem, and some have adventitious breathing roots that hang from the aerial parts, while others grow breathing roots called pneumatophores
, sticking up from the submerged roots.
Adaptations to waterlogging such as prop-roots, knee-roots, swollen lenticels, and pneumatophores
Biomass of algae epiphytic on pneumatophores
of the mangrove, Avicennia marina, in the St.