Polyhydric Alcohols


Also found in: Medical.

Polyhydric Alcohols

 

alcohols of the fatty series that contain several —OH groups in the molecule. Polyhydric alcohols, as well as other polyatomic compounds containing more than one functional group per molecule, are classified as dihydric (glycols), trihydric (glycerols), tetrahydric (tetritols), pentahydric (pentitols), hexahydric (hexitols), and so on. The most important alcohols that contain no fewer than four —OH groups are pentaerythritol, C(CH2OH)4, and the pentitols (for example, xylitol, adonitol, and arabitol) and hexites (mannitol, sorbitol, and dulcitol), which are genetically related to monosaccharides.

Polyhydric alcohols are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste that are readily soluble in water. Many of them are synthesized in plants. A large number of stereoisomers are known to exist for each type of alcohol. Polyhydric alcohols exhibit all the properties characteristic of monohydric alcohols (for example, they readily undergo esterification and oxidation). Nitrates of polyhydric alcohols are explosive.

Polyhydric alcohols are usually prepared commercially by the reduction of aldoses and ketoses. They are used in the manufacture of polymers (pentaerythritol and xylitol) and explosives, and also as sugar substitutes for diabetics (sorbitol and xylitol). They are also used as moistening agents in the manufacture of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals; their ethers are used as emulsifiers.

References in periodicals archive ?
For further inquiries, about Polyhydric alcohols benzoate Market - http://www.
The report firstly introduced the Polyhydric alcohols benzoate basics: definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain overview; industry policies and plans; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures and so on.
The patent describes the use of sorbitol (easily derived from starch) as the polyhydric alcohol and the use of succinic acid anhydride as the polycarboxylic acid.
Conventional alkyd resins are synthesized by mixing the appropriate amount of polyhydric alcohol, polycarboxylic acid (anhydride), and fatty acid or oil.
However, it has been shown that the kinetics of enzymes can be changed by polyhydric alcohols (25) and that aspartase is activated by glycerol, ethylene glycol (1,2-ethanediol), and propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol) (26).
Sugar alcohols, also referred to as polyols, are polyhydric alcohols which are closely related to sugars, but with their aldehyde or ketone group replaced by a hydroxyl group.
Another promising group of phase-change materials is the polyhydric alcohols.
Proprietary licensed technology for Chemanol's new pentaerythritol production facility is supplied by Swedish firm Perstrop AB, a world leader in the manufacturing of polyhydric alcohols and other specialty chemicals.