Pontiac's Rebellion


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Pontiac's Rebellion,

 

Pontiac's Conspiracy,

or

Pontiac's War,

1763–66, Native American uprising against the British just after the close of the French and Indian WarsFrench and Indian Wars,
1689–1763, the name given by American historians to the North American colonial wars between Great Britain and France in the late 17th and the 18th cent.
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, so called after one of its leaders, PontiacPontiac,
fl. 1760–66, Ottawa chief. He may have been the chief met by Robert Rogers in 1760 when Rogers was on his way to take possession of the Western forts for the English.
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.

Causes

The French attitude toward the Native Americans had always been more conciliatory than that of the English. French Jesuit priests and French traders had maintained friendly and generous dealings with their Native American neighbors. After conquering New France (Old Canada), the English aroused the resentment of the Western tribes by treating them arrogantly, refusing to supply them with free ammunition (as the French had done), building forts, and permitting white settlement on Native American–owned lands.

Course of the War

In Apr., 1763, a council was held by the Native Americans on the banks of the Ecorse River near Detroit; there an attack on the fort at Detroit was planned. Pontiac's scheme was to gain admission to the garrison for himself and some of his chiefs by asking for a council with the commandant, but the Native Americans, who would be carrying weapons, were then to open a surprise attack. Major Henry Gladwin, the commandant, was warned of the plot and foiled it. However, Pontiac and his Ottawas, reinforced by Wyandots, Potawatomis, and Ojibwas, stormed the fort on May 10. The garrison was relieved by reinforcements and supplies from Niagara in the summer, but Pontiac continued to besiege it until November, when, disappointed at finding he could expect no help from the French, he retired to the Maumee River.

Fort Pitt in Pennsylvania had been warned of the uprising by a messenger from Gladwin and withstood attack until relieved by Col. Henry BouquetBouquet, Henry
, 1719–65, British army officer in the French and Indian Wars. A French Swiss, he came to America in 1756 and distinguished himself as second in command to Gen. John Forbes in the successful expedition (1758) against Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh).
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. Bouquet and his forces, on their way to Fort Pitt in Aug., 1763, had been victorious in a severe engagement at Bushy Run. Meanwhile, Pontiac's allies, the Delaware, Seneca, and Shawnee tribes, captured and destroyed many British outposts, among them Sandusky, Michilimackinac (see MackinacMackinac
, historic region of the Old Northwest (see Northwest Territory), a shortening of Michilimackinac. The name, in the past, was variously applied to different areas: to Mackinac Island; to Michigan; to the whole fur-trading region supplied from the island; to the northern
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), and Presque Isle. In an attempt by the British to surprise Pontiac's camp, the battle of Bloody Run was fought on July 31, 1763, with great loss to the British. The borders of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia were kept in a state of terror.

In the spring of 1764 an offensive campaign was planned by the English, and two armies were sent out, one into Ohio under Colonel Bouquet and the other to the Great Lakes under Col. John Bradstreet. Bradstreet's attempts at treaties were condemned by Gen. Thomas Gage, who had succeeded Sir Jeffery Amherst as commander in chief, and Colonel Bradstreet returned home with little achievement. Bouquet, by his campaign in Pennsylvania, brought the Delaware and the Shawnee to sue for peace, and a treaty was concluded with them by Sir William Johnson. After failing to persuade some of the tribes farther west and south to join him in rebellion, Pontiac finally completed in 1766 a treaty with Johnson and was pardoned by the English.

Bibliography

F. Parkman's History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac (1851, 10th rev. ed. 1913), although it contains certain inaccuracies, is the classic work. See also H. H. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising (1947) and G. Evans, War under Heaven (2002).

References in periodicals archive ?
The majority of the Haudenosaunee refused to join Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, thereby helping the British quell it.
Again, this collection offers a counter-narrative to the traditional rendering on the Revolutionary War, one that demonstrates how popular songs help to create support from political movements and how the colonial militia did indeed engage in a type of biological warfare against the Native American participants of Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763.
130), as opposed to its more widely accepted characterization as Pontiac's Rebellion.
Pontiac's rebellion began at Detroit when the Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Hurons and a band of Chippewas attacked soldiers and settlers outside its walls.
During Pontiac's rebellion, Indian warriors killed about 2,000 civilian settlers and 400 soldiers in an attempt to extirpate the enemy.
In 1763, the Delaware prophet, Neolin, provided the inspiration for Pontiac's rebellion, and some fifty years later the Shawnee prophet, Tenskwatawa, provided the inspiration for Tecumseh's revolution.
The series titles are Sitting Bull, Pontiac's Rebellion, The Worlds of Joseph Brant, Black Hawk War, and The Trial of Poundmaker," said Greg McIsaac, publicist at History Television.
Pontiac's Rebellion, named for the Ottawa Indian chief who led the uprising, began when Pontiac led an attack on the fort at Detroit.
Principal wars: French and Indian War (1754-1763); Pontiac's Rebellion (1763); American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).
He served again under Johnson (1763) in Pontiac's Rebellion.
Though Macomb's family had relocated back to New York when he was very young, the general would have had a more than passing interest in Pontiac's rebellion through the anecdotes of his Navarre relatives.
Two hundred thirty pages are given over to the years after fighting in North America ceased, and the focus of the latter section, despite some attention to the war misnamed Pontiac's Rebellion, shifts decisively toward imperial and colonial politics.