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Pontus Euxinus:see Black SeaBlack Sea,
inland sea, c.159,600 sq mi (413,360 sq km), between SE Europe and Asia, connected with the Mediterranean Sea by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. It is c.
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(literally, “hospitable sea”), the ancient Greek name for the Black Sea. Apparently it was initially called the Pontus Axeinus (“inhospitable sea”). Greek colonies traded with the Mediterranean cities across the Pontus Euxinus. Coastwise navigation between the ports of the same states prevailed. However, as early as the fifth century B.C., Greek ships began crossing the Pontus Euxinus in a meridional direction as well.