Sixtus IV

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Sixtus IV

(sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he was too much embroiled in political difficulties. The struggle with the French monarchy over the control of the church in France was complicated by Louis XI's efforts to replace Ferdinand I of Naples with a Frenchman. A quarrel with Lorenzo de' MediciMedici, Lorenzino de'
, 1515–47, member of the cadet branch of the Medici family. A boon companion of Alessandro de' Medici, he secretly plotted the duke's murder—possibly out of republican convictions.
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 became critical after the Pazzi conspiracyPazzi conspiracy
, 1478, plot against Lorenzo de' Medici (Lorenzo il Magnifico) and his brother Giuliano, designed to end the hegemony of the Medici in the Florentine state and to enlarge papal territory.
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 (1478), since an important instigator was Girolamo Riario, nephew of Sixtus, and the pope seems to have had prior knowledge of the plot. He waged war on Florence afterward. Though a reconciliation was made in 1479, Lorenzo joined Louis XI in threatening schism. Relations with Italian states other than Florence were also unhappy. Sixtus consented (1478) to the establishment of the Spanish InquisitionInquisition
, tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church established for the investigation of heresy. The Medieval Inquisition

In the early Middle Ages investigation of heresy was a duty of the bishops.
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 and then found the Spanish ignoring his rebukes for illegal procedure and jurisdiction and his demands for moderation. He welcomed into the Papal States the Jews expelled from Spain. The behavior of his favored nephews was disgraceful; a happy exception was Giuliano della Rovere (later Pope Julius II). Sixtus was an excellent administrator of the city and did much to improve and beautify Rome. He was an important benefactor of the Vatican Library, and he founded the Sistine Chapel. He summoned Josquin Desprez to Rome and legislated for the improvement of church music. He was succeeded by Innocent VIII.
References in periodicals archive ?
15] By the time Antonio Pollaiuo lo executed the tomb for Pope Sixtus IV in 1484, he included Perspectiva as the Eighth Liberal Art.
The outbreak of this war followed the failure to remove Lorenzo de' Medici from power through an assassination attempt (his brother was killed while Lorenzo escaped) orchestrated by the Pazzi family with the approval of Pope Sixtus IV.
They sided with the duke because the Orsini were in the employ of Pope Sixtus IV, who was then attacking Florence.
This is a letter to the patron, Pope Sixtus IV, not available when Ettlinger wrote, dedicating to him a translation of a classical work.
The bride and her most distinguished companions were then conducted to a papal audience and dinner with Pope Sixtus IV at the Lateran Palace.
In the furious pace of Julius's activities, it is easy to forget that this pope's headlong involvement in the vita activa was ruled by an extraordinary intellect: he had supervised the Vatican Library from its foundation by his uncle Pope Sixtus IV, counted the mathematician Luca Pacioli among his friends, and commissioned works of art whose density of meaning far outstrips those sponsored by his bookish successor Leo X.
Finally, Pope Sixtus IV made him a castellan in Ceprano, where he had the leisure to complete his signal scholarly endeavor, the translation of Philo of Alexandria.
Landriani (the wife of his "companion in pleasure"), achieved one of the most politically important matches of the later fifteenth century when she married Girolamo Riario, Lord of Imola and nephew of Pope Sixtus IV.