Popolani

Popolani

 

(from Italian popolo, “the people”), the strata of shopkeepers and artisans who, united in guilds, existed in the cities of North and Central Italy in the 12th to 16th centuries. The popolani waged a successful struggle against the feudal lords at the turn of the 13th century and by the mid-13th century gained control of the most advanced cities, including Bologna (in 1245), Florence (1250), and Perugia (1258). In the city-states where popolani authority was firmly established, elective rule by representatives of the guilds was instituted. This rule depended on the support of armed detachments of townsmen. At the end of the 13th century, the feudal lords in these cities were deprived of political rights through the legislative process (People’s Statutes of Siena, 1277; Ordinances of Justice of Florence, 1293).

By the 14th century, a clear-cut division between the rich urban upper class, or popolo grasso, and the lower-class artisans, or popolo minuto, had emerged within the popolani. The popolo minuto, together with hired laborers, took action against the popolo grasso in Perugia and Siena in 1371 and in Florence in 1378. This prompted the rich popolani to forge an alliance with the feudal lords against popular movements. In the 15th century, when the signory system predominated, the role of the popolani diminished. The Catholic reaction in Italy in the 16th century led to a renewal of the social struggle of the popolani in Friuli (1509–11) and Genoa (1575).

REFERENCES

Gukovskii, M. A. Ital’ianskoe Vozrozhdenie, vol. 1. Leningrad, 1947. Pages 47–60, 80–84, and 161–67.
Rutenburg, V. I. Narodnye dvizheniia ν gorodakh Italii: XIV-nach. XV vv. Moscow-Leningrad, 1958. Pages 72–73 and 293–327.
Rutenburg, V. I. Italiia i Evropa nakanune novogo vremeni. Leningrad, 1974. Pages 119–188.
Batkin, L. M. “Gvel’fy i gibelliny vo Florentsii.” In the collection Srednie veka, issue 16. Moscow, 1959.

V. I. RUTENBURG

References in periodicals archive ?
Passano popolani dalle maglie rosse e i berretti neri, passano cittadini di colore in completi blu o verde, passano esili e cinguettanti marinai stranieri, con pipe e bianchi berretti; passano donnette vistose e umane; soldati stanchi; passa un uomo d'ete, dall'aspetto bonario, conducendo per mano un cane vestito alia marinara, in blu rosso e bianco, che poi si rivela un giovanetto cieco [.
Il mutamento di tono si percepi agli inizi degli anni '50 quando comincia a cambiare il tenore culturale e si avverte un'incrinatura nel classicismo cinquecentesco e cominciano ad apparire sulla scena personaggi anomali come Ortensio Lando (I cataloghi) e Francesco Doni (I Marmi), nelle cui opere figurano spesso dei popolani come protagonisti, personaggi carichi di fermenti di ribellione e di irregolarita.
The recoding of the passions in the funeral statutes come from the popolani sector of the communal ruling elite, a group that drew upon a lay intellectual culture, distinguishable from both knightly and clerical culture.
46) These laws were aimed generally at those popolani "who imitated the extravagant habits of the magnati": see Rainey, esp.
Jeffrey Lloyd Roberts, fresh from his triumph as Peter Grimes at Opera North, sings the title role, supported by Eric Roberts as Popolani.
A more common, general term for the labouring classes was popolani, which thus distinguished them from the abstracted popolo (people) so idealized by Mazzini and his followers, one of whom suggested an alternative: "the plebe, I call them, because one does not call 'popolo' a people so prodigiously stupid.
They are the popolani grassi who rise up against the podesta of Lisbon.
His hit man, Popolani, was a schizophrenic psychopath.
As the priorate of Giano della Bella came to an end in 1293, the ruling families split over how best to serve the interests of their class: the Cerchi, a powerful mercantile family, took a more accommodating view of the popolani, while the Donati wanted to reassert the traditional rights of the nobility (Schevill 164-165).
Here Klapisch-Zuber traces how popolani branches of lineages such as the Gherardini, Squarcialupi, Tornaquinci, and Visdomini maintained ties of solidarity with their magnate kin.
L'unica cosa che risalta e il risentimento nei confronti di popolani che scambiano per "unto" macchie che probabilmente avevano visto da tempo su quei muri, senza mai averci badato piu di tanto.
122); del resto, in Q muso appare o quando si parla di animali (VIII, 45; XI, 45; XVII, 11) o in discorsi di popolani (XIV, 10) o, appunto, nell'espressione "fare il muso" (XXIII, 43, qui applicata a don Abbondio).