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a class of auxiliary words having the meaning of prepositions, but occurring postpositively, that is, after the words they govern. Postpositions are common in various languages, including the Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Mongolian, Caucasian, and Tunguso-Manchurian. Examples are seen in the Tatar tavlar arasïnda (“between the mountains”; arasïnda means “between”), the Chuvash shïv urla (“across the river”; urla means “across”), and the Hungarian a tábla mellett (“beside the board”; mellett means “beside”). Some postpositions may take a case ending, as can be seen by comparing the Zyrian pu vylyn (“on the tree”; locative case), pu vylyś (“away from the tree”; ablative case), and pu vylǝ (“onto the tree”; aditive case). In some instances, postpositions are also used as substantives and with an independent meaning, as in the Tatar ara (“space,” “interval”) and arasïnda (“between”) and the Udmurt vylyn (“on”) and vyl (“surface”).