An objective determination of the polar vortex using Ertel's potential vorticity
Emanuel, 1995a: Potential vorticity
diagnostics of hurricane movement.
Robertson, 1985: On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity
While not discussed in the abovementioned tropospheric vortex studies, the edge of the tropospheric vortex can (as in the stratosphere) be defined from potential vorticity
contours on an isentropic surface or (equivalently) potential temperature on a surface of constant potential vorticity
(Hoskins et al.
2003: Potential vorticity
intrusion index and climate variability of surface temperature.
Romine, 2015: Sensitivity of central Oklahoma convection forecasts to upstream potential vorticity
anomalies during two strongly forced cases during MPEX.
Because such boundary thermal perturbations can be regarded as potential vorticity
anomalies (Bretherton 1966), interactions between these edge waves can promote baroclinic growth in the Eady model (Davies and Bishop 1994), a process highly relevant to TT events.
2) stirring associated with finescale potential vorticity
anomalies (vortical modes) caused by internal-wave breaking;
Some examples are superimposing satellite pictures and reanalysis fields, producing an isentropic potential vorticity
(PV) map, and visualizing a vertical section across a flow feature of interest.
Cross sections through the potential vorticity
(PV) tower associated with Sandy (not shown) indicate that a cyclonic PV maximum greater than 4 PVU (1 PVU = 10"6 K kg-1 m2 s"1) extends vertically to between the 250- and 450-hPa levels, suggesting that flow changes at the 300-hPa level could be useful in analysis of track changes; Munsell and Zhang (2014) indicate that a lower steering level may be more relevant.
The scientific approach of DIAMET concentrates on the effect of diabatic processes on the distribution of potential vorticity
(PV) and its consequences for the evolution of weather systems.
Roebber, 2010: The influence of upper-tropospheric potential vorticity
on convective morphology.