Power System Dispatcher Control
Power System Dispatcher Control
centralized, day-to-day (operational) control of the operating mode of a power (or energy) system as a whole and of its power installations, realized in the process of generating, converting, and distributing electricity (and/or heat) in order to provide an uninterrupted and reliable supply of energy. Depending on its size, the power system may be controlled from a single control station or from several; in the latter case the activities of the several stations are coordinated from a central control station (seeTRAFFIC CONTROL).
In the USSR, dispatcher control services were established for the Moscow and Leningrad power systems in 1926 and later for the Donets Coal Basin, Sverdlovsk, and other systems. In order to provide operational control for parallel operation of the Dnieper and Donets Coal Basin systems, dispatcher control service was organized for the Southern Power System in 1940, the Integrated Dispatcher Control was initiated for the Urals (Sverdlovsk, Cheliabinsk, and Perm power systems) in 1942, and the Integrated Dispatcher Control was established for the Central Zone (Moscow, Gorky, Ivanovo, and Yaroslavl power systems) in 1945. The construction in 1956 of the 400-kilovolt power transmission line running from the V. I. Lenin Volga Hydroelectric Power Plant to Moscow marked the inauguration of the Integrated Electric Power Grid of the European part of the USSR. Based on the Integrated Dispatcher Control of the Central Zone, a similar dispatcher control was established in 1957 for the Integrated Electric Power Grid of the European part of the USSR. The creation of interconnected power systems in Siberia and Middle Asia and the connection of the integrated power systems of Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, and Siberia for operation in parallel with the Integrated Electric Power Grid necessitated the organization in 1967 of a centralized dispatcher control for the Integrated Electric Power Grid of the USSR.
By 1976, the USSR had 93 energy systems in operation, 85 of which operated in parallel as part of interconnected power systems. The total power of the plants so connected constituted more than 90 percent of all the power generated by the country’s electric power plants. The operating mode of the Integrated Electric Power Grid of the USSR, the interconnected power systems, individual power systems, electric power plants, and distribution and supply systems are controlled at the corresponding levels, with lower elements subordinated to higher ones—from the centralized dispatcher control through interconnected dispatcher controls to the central dispatcher services of individual power systems. Day-to-day control of operating modes is established by working out daily schedules to ensure efficient coverage of power system loads. The centralized dispatcher control for the Integrated Electric Power Grid of the USSR assigns load schedules for interconnected power systems, integrated dispatcher controls assign schedules for individual power systems, and central dispatcher controls assign schedules for electric power plants.
At all levels, power system dispatcher control provides round-the-clock control. Duty dispatchers ensure that proper operating modes are maintained and that operations adhere to assigned schedules. They make any needed corrections when the operating conditions of the power systems change and supervise restoration of normal service in power systems during emergencies. Control stations are equipped with a complex of communications facilities, remote control devices, automation devices, and computers. The layout and status of the primary electric power systems and power installations are represented by displays on the dispatcher’s board and control console, which are equipped with telemetering and remote signaling devices.
The development of energy and power systems and the growing complexity of control problems have necessitated the development of automated dispatcher control systems that collect, transmit, process, and display operational data regarding circuit conditions and the current status of a power system or power facility; automated systems also calculate optimum operating modes. An associated development has been the complete automation of certain important operational control functions. Computers are used for automatic frequency and power regulation, and provision is being made for the use of computers in automatic counteremergency systems as well.
REFERENCESElektrifikatsiia SSSR. Edited by P. S. Neporozhnii. Moscow, 1970.
See also references under ENERGY SYSTEM.
G. A. CHERNIA and IA. N. LUGINSKII