psychosomatic medicine

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psychosomatic medicine

(sī'kōsōmăt`ĭk), study and treatment of those emotional disturbances that are manifested as physical disorders. The term psychosomatic emphasizes essential unity of the psyche and the soma, a combination rooted in ancient Greek medicine. Common disorders caused at least partly by psychological factors include childhood asthmaasthma
, chronic inflammatory respiratory disease characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. A cough producing sticky mucus is symptomatic.
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, certain gastrointestinal problems, hypertension, endocrine disturbances, diabetes, and possibly even heart disease. In most psychosomatic conditions there is some interaction between psychological factors and physiological predisposition to the illness. Sigmund FreudFreud, Sigmund
, 1856–1939, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. Born in Moravia, he lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881.

His medical career began with an apprenticeship (1885–86) under J.
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, at the end of the 19th cent., laid the scientific groundwork for psychosomatic study, with his theoretical formulations based on new methods of treating hysteriahysteria
, in psychology, a disorder commonly known today as conversion disorder, in which a psychological conflict is converted into a bodily disturbance. It is distinguished from hypochondria by the fact that its sufferers do not generally confuse their condition with real,
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. His methods were reinforced by the psychobiology of the American psychiatrist Adolf Meyer and the research of the American physiologist W. B. Cannon on the physiological effects of acute emotion. The treatment of psychosomatic ailments may involve a medical regimen as well as some form of psychotherapypsychotherapy,
treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods.
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 for the patient. In recent years, psychosomatic medicine has been subsumed under the broader field of behavioral medicine, which includes the study of a wider range of physical ailments. Understanding the psychological causes of various ailments is crucial: studies suggest that a large percentage of deaths are rooted in behavior. In the 1960s, concepts related to conditioning gained prominence, as researchers found that humans and animals could learn to control their autonomic nervous system responses, usually involved in psychosomatic complaints. Emerging from this research came the technique of biofeedback that provides individuals with information concerning their own physiological responses, which they may begin to alter through conscious techniques of control. The newest area of research related to psychosomatic medicine has been called psychoneuroimmunology, the study of the interactions of the endocrine system, central nervous system, and immune system. Researchers believe that studies of these biological systems can help to show how an individual becomes vulnerable to illness.


See J. M. Kuldau, ed., Treatment for Psychosomatic Problems (1982); C. P. Wilson and I. L. Mintz, ed., Psychosomatic Symptoms (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
Is it just the power of suggestion that I find a wine leaner in a narrower glass--as if the "shape" of the wine in my mouth mirrors the shape of the glass?
The power of suggestion, whether by a friend or at a bar, appeals to impulsive and curious consumers.
The power of suggestion in this play is brilliant and scary enough to make your blood curdle
The poems become longer and more complex, more prosaic but without losing the power of suggestion.
The power of suggestion was so strong that it promoted a kind of chain-reaction of visions: when one person cried out, "She breathes
Lima psychiatrist Julio Flores says Zarate's improvement was the result of the power of suggestion.
Concluding his introduction to a reissue of this work, Gilson said, "More than eighty years after its first publication, the Grammar of Assent has preserved intact it s power of suggestion, its actuality and its fecundity as a method of investigation whose potentialities are far from being exhausted.
For this year's meeting, DeLuca returns with his "Theater of the Imagination," which uses the power of suggestion, humor and attendees' imaginations to create a delightful evening of fun.
If this point seems obvious, I am doing violence to the breadth of Harris's review of these theories, including her wonderful summary of the experiments sociologists have done showing how easily student-subjects can be induced, by the power of suggestion, to identify with a wholly invented group.
He discovered that the power of suggestion impacts a person's ability to learn and to remember information.
Concerned that her cure might not last or, worse, that it was somehow due to a "placebo effect" - having more to do with the power of suggestion than the antibiotic - she did not tell anyone, even her doctors, what had happened.
Products bearing designer labels might automatically look and taste differently merely by the power of suggestion, yet they must also perform to higher expectations.