Prenatal Care


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Prenatal Care

 

the aggregate of hygienic, organizational, and therapeutic-prophylactic measures directed toward the creation of optimal conditions for the normal development of the human fetus and the prevention of congenital diseases, developmental anomalies, and afterbirth (perinatal) deaths. Various diseases in the mother before or during pregnancy may adversely affect the fetus and lead to premature birth, developmental defects, various diseases in the uterine or later life of the infant, and sometimes to the death of the fetus. The maternal organism, acted upon by the external environment, becomes in its turn the external environment of the fetus, interaction with which is effected mainly through the circulatory system of the afterbirth—placenta. For this reason, the mother’s condition before and during pregnancy is important for the development of the embryo and the fetus in the first days and weeks of pregnancy.

Prenatal care includes the early observation of pregnant women; early discovery ..treatment, and prophylaxis of infectious, cardiovascular, and other diseases and toxicoses of pregnancy; rational diet; prohibition of medications and X-ray radiation without a doctor’s prescription; prohibition of alcohol and tobacco; sufficient oxygen saturation of the mother’s organism; residence in a special sanatorium or rest home for pregnant women; a proper regimen of work and rest; therapeutic exercise; psychoprophylactic preparation for giving birth; and the future mother’s visit to a school for motherhood. Qualified help at childbirth is very important. Early tests for the blood group and Rh factor of the pregnant woman are performed.

Prenatal care is effected by the whole system of Soviet public health and motherhood and childhood protection, which are directed toward prophylaxis. Prenatal care is also stipulated in special legislation pertaining to women workers in general and to pregnant women in particular. This legislation includes pregnancy and childbirth leaves and grants and other measures. Fulfillment of these measures and their immediate execution are provided by women’s consultation offices, the social-legal bureaus connected with them, maternity homes, and medical and genetic consultation offices that give prophylaxis and treatment for hereditary diseases.

REFERENCES

“Nauchnaia sessiia po probleme ‘Antenatal’nyi period zhizni i prob-lemy ego okhrany’.” In Tezisy dokladov. Moscow, 1961.
Flamm, G. Prenatal’nye infektsii cheloveka. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from German.)
Zhenskaia konsul’tatsiia. Edited by L. S. Persianinov. Minsk, 1966.

A. L. KAPLAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Most of the women in the study were referred to a prenatal care center by their family physician, although two were referred by their midwife, one was referred by a nurse practitioner and fertility specialist, and three started their care with an obstetrician.
Medical records included information on prenatal care, STI screening during pregnancy, and pregnancy history.
March of Dimes supportive pregnancy care enables expectant mothers to access prenatal care on a monthly basis in a supportive group setting with women who are of similar gestational ages.
Using a cohort of all mothers delivering babies during the period of the syphilis rescreening program, we describe the maternal demographic and prenatal care characteristics associated with i) receipt of prenatal syphilis testing (PST) at the three recommended time points, and ii) receipt of PST only at the time of delivery or no receipt of PST throughout pregnancy or at delivery.
To reduce the burden that LBW imposes on society, the medical community has underscored prenatal care as a key input.
Moreover, most of the mothers had a positive attitude towards the concept and practice of group prenatal care.
Prenatal care in developed countries such as the US typically involve several visits (between 7-11) with health care providers for pregnant women to receive counseling, screening for health risks, and procedures to prevent health complications (Kirkham, Harris, & Grzybowski, 2005).
In a review of literature, practice guidelines from the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) provided general evidence-based prenatal care guidelines for the first trimester, which focused on counseling issues concerning dietary needs, avoidance of teratrogens, genetics counseling, and prenatal parameters according to gestational age.
The present study reports on prenatal care attendance, engagement in healthy behaviors and stress in pregnant substance users participating in a randomized controlled trial of Motivational Enhancement Therapy for pregnant substance users (MET-PS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU; Winhusen et al.
Among women without prenatal care (35), however, 51% of cases presented prior to 12 weeks and 74% occurred prior to 16 weeks of gestation.
The analysts examined reports of one preconception behavior (daily use of folic acid), four prenatal behaviors (cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the third trimester, receipt of prenatal care in the first trimester and receipt of no prenatal care) and six postpartum behaviors (smoking, any breastfeeding, breast-feeding for at least eight weeks, placing the infant on his or her back to sleep, depression and contraceptive use).
Institute of Medicine committee recommended universal testing for HIV as a routine part of prenatal care (CDC, 1999).