food preservation

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food preservation,

methods of preparing food so that it can be stored for future use. Because most foods remain edible for only a brief period of time, people since the earliest ages have experimented with methods for successful food preservation. Among the products of early food conservation were cheese and butter, raisins, pemmican, sausage, bacon, and grain.

As scientific investigations regarding the causes of food spoilage were undertaken, they pointed the way to a wider application of methods already in use and to the discovery of new ones. Before 1860 changes in food were explained on the theory of spontaneous generation. Pasteur demonstrated that ferments, molds, and some forms of putrefaction were caused by the presence of microorganisms widely distributed in the environment. Since these microorganisms are the main cause of food spoilage, food preservation depends on rendering conditions unfavorable for their growth. Processes of preservation may be generally classified as drying, heating, refrigerationrefrigeration,
process for drawing heat from substances to lower their temperature, often for purposes of preservation. Refrigeration in its modern, portable form also depends on insulating materials that are thin yet effective.
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 (see also frozen foodsfrozen foods,
products of the food preservation process of freezing. This process has been employed by people in the Arctic from prehistoric times. Eskimos throw fresh-caught fish on the ice to freeze, and naturally frozen fish have been a trade staple of the Great Lakes region
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), and the use of chemicals or other particular agencies.

Drying and Heating

The most ancient method is drying, and it was employed early for fruits, grains, vegetables, fish, and meat. It was sometimes combined with parching, as in the oatmeal of Scotland or the corn of the Native American. Modern applications of this ancient device are seen in dried or dehydrated fruits and vegetables, milk, meat, and eggs. A more recent variation, known as freeze-drying, is now being used on such foods as instant coffee, meat, orange juice, and soup. The early method of drying was by direct exposure to the sun's rays; in modern industry the process is hastened by complex apparatus and by chemical agencies. The use of sugar was early combined with drying. Smoking, a method used mainly for fish and meat, combines the drying action with chemicals produced from the smoke, which form a protective coating. The process of heating was used centuries before its action was understood (see canningcanning,
process of hermetically sealing cooked food for future use. It is a preservation method, in which prepared food is put in glass jars or metal cans that are hermetically sealed to keep out air and then heated to a specific temperature for a specified time to destroy
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). One of the most important modern applications of the heat principle is the pasteurizationpasteurization
, partial sterilization of liquids such as milk, orange juice, wine, and beer, as well as cheese, to destroy disease-causing and other undesirable organisms.
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 of milk.


In modern food preservation, preservatives function in two ways. One is by delaying the spoilage of the food, while the other is by ensuring that the food retains, as nearly as possible, its original quality. The first method includes the use of sugar (see jelly and jamjelly and jam,
gelatinous, sweet food prepared by preserving fresh fruits. Since most fresh fruits contain about 80% water and from 10% to 15% sugar, they are subject to fermentation. They may be preserved by adding sugar and reducing the water content.
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), vinegar for pickling meats and vegetables, salt (one of the oldest preservatives), and alcohol. Good wine will keep almost indefinitely, and fruit placed in a 15% to 20% alcohol solution (brandying) is well preserved. The second method includes the use of ascorbic acid (which prevents color deterioration in canned fruits), benzoic acid, sulfur dioxide, and a variety of neutralizers, firming agents, and bleaching agents. The excessive or unacknowledged use of these chemical agencies has been legislated against by most governments.

Exclusion of Air

The exclusion of air, nowadays accomplished by hermetic sealing, is an old device, formerly practiced by pouring hot oil over potted meat or fish, by coating or mixing food with melted fat, as in pemmican, or by burying vegetables in the earth or in sand. The use of melted paraffin achieves the same result. Eggs may be preserved by preventing air from penetrating their porous shells, usually by coating them with an impervious substance.


Irradiation has also been used successfully to destroy many of the microorganisms that might cause spoilage in food. Irradiation has been declared safe by the Food and Drug Administration and World Health Organization. Thus, despite opposition from those who fear that health hazards from its use will be discovered later, this method is gradually gaining acceptance.


See G. Borgstrom, Principles of Food Science (2 vol., 1968); N. W. Desrosier, The Technology of Food Preservation (3d ed. 1970); S. Thorne, The History of Food Preservation (1986).

food preservation

[′füd ‚prez·ər‚vā·shən]
(food engineering)
Processing designed to protect food from spoilage caused by microbes, enzymes, and autooxidation.
References in classic literature ?
To my own good luck, that ship was loaded with meat, preserved foods, crackers, bread, bottles of wine, raisins, cheese, coffee, sugar, wax candles, and boxes of matches.
com/research/kwgc54/canned_preserved) has announced the addition of the "Canned Preserved Food Market - Asia Pacific and Latin America Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2015 - 2021" report to their offering.
It also recommended pilgrims to refrain from eating exposed food and try coated or preserved food as much as possible.
Developments in commercial heat preserved food production are fast-growing and constantly changing in all areas - from packaging, to food production, to legislation and beyond.
In its statement, the Ministry called upon citizens and residents for washing their hands after using the bathrooms, before eating and after dealing with the uncooked meat, as well as, washing vegetables well before eating them and making sure that the refrigerator's temperature is put on the right level for preserving food from 0 to 5 degree centigrade, in addition to avoiding to eat remains of the preserved food kept for more than two days, keeping the uncooked meat far from the cooked meat and cooking the food under a temperature not less than 70 degrees centigrade to ensure killing harmful bacteria.
People should avoid eating remains of the preserved food kept for more than two days, should keep uncooked meat away from the cooked meat and cook food under a temperature of not less than 70 degrees centigrade to ensure killing of harmful bacteria.
Renee Pokorny of Ventura was caught by surprise when she won a Best of Show ribbon last year for her lemon garlic dill olives, one of five preserved food jars she entered.
Changing practices will be difficult because the intervention needs to be home-based and must account for the various forces that compel persons to eat improperly preserved food.
A classic example of an extremely popular preserved food, which may not at first come to mind, is cheese.
Nitrites react with certain amines (parts of protein) in preserved food to produce nitrosamines, which if consumed in very large doses over a long period of time may cause cancer.
In 1804 he successfully preserved food in sealed glass containers.
23, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Canned preserved food market has significant growth potential in Asia Pacific and Latin America especially in countries like India China, Brazil, Argentina and various others.