Calvin Coolidge

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Coolidge, Calvin,

1872–1933, 30th President of the United States (1923–29), b. Plymouth, Vt. John Calvin Coolidge was a graduate of Amherst College and was admitted to the bar in 1897. He practiced (1897–1919) law in Northampton, Mass., entered state politics as a Republican, and rose steadily in the party. He served (1910–11) as mayor of Northampton, was a member of the Massachusetts state senate from 1912 to 1915 (its president after 1914), and was (1916–19) lieutenant governor before serving (1919–21) as governor. Coolidge rose to national prominence when he used the militia to end the Boston police strike in 1919. In 1920 he was nominated as Republican candidate for the vice presidency and was elected with Warren G. Harding. After Harding died, Coolidge took (Aug. 3, 1923) the oath of office as President. Untouched by the scandals of the Harding administration, he was easily elected to a full term in 1924. His personal honesty and New England simplicity appealed to the American people, and his unquestioning faith in the conservative business values of laissez faire reflected the national mood. Coolidge's policies were aggressively pro-business. Through his appointees he transformed the Federal Trade Commission from an agency intended to regulate corporations into one dominated by big business. He twice vetoed (1927, 1928) the McNary-Haugen bill to aid agriculture and pocket-vetoed (1928) a bill for government operation of the Muscle Shoals hydroelectric plant. The presence in his cabinet of Herbert C. Hoover and Andrew W. Mellon added to the business tone of his administration, and Coolidge supported Mellon's program of tax cuts and economy in government. Through his public statements he encouraged the reckless stock market speculation of the late 1920s and left the nation unprepared for the economic collapse that followed. Coolidge chose not to seek renomination in 1928. After leaving office he retired to Northampton to write newspaper and magazine articles and his autobiography (1929, repr. 1989). As first lady, his wife, Grace A. Goodhue Coolidge, was much admired for her poise and charm. A selection of his press conferences was edited by H. H. Quint and R. H. Ferrell (1964).

Bibliography

See biographies by C. M. Fuess (1940), D. R. McCoy (1967, repr. 1988), J. Abels (1969), W. A. White (1938, repr. 1973), R. Sobel (1998), and A. Shlaes (2013).

Coolidge, Calvin

 

Born July 4, 1872, in Plymouth, Vt; died Jan. 5, 1933, in Northampton, Mass. American political figure; lawyer by profession.

In 1918–19, Coolidge, a member of the Republican Party, served as governor of Massachusetts. From 1921 to 1923 he was vice-president and from 1923 to 1929, the 30th president of the USA. (He became president after the death of President W. Harding.) In the interests of the monopolies the Coolidge government raised tariffs, hindered the implementation of legislation designed to aid farmers, and waged a struggle against the workers’ movement. It opposed US participation in the League of Nations, conducted an expansionist policy in Latin America and the Far East, and facilitated the restoration of the military potential of German imperialism (for example, through the Dawes Plan). Coolidge adopted a hostile position toward the USSR and refused to grant it diplomatic recognition.

Coolidge, Calvin

(1872–1933) 30th U.S. president; nicknamed “Silent Cal.” [Am. Hist.: Frank, 99]

Coolidge, (John) Calvin

(1872–1933) thirtieth U.S. president; born in Plymouth, Vt. After graduating from Amherst College (1895), he became a lawyer in Northampton, Mass. As a Republican, he held a series of local and state offices until becoming governor of Massachusetts (1919–20); he gained national attention for using the state militia to suppress a police strike. Elected vice-president in 1920, he succeeded to the presidency on Warren Harding's death in 1923. He was reelected the next year. A popular and deliberately hands-off president in prosperous times, he was noted more for what he did not do and say than for what he did (although among his oft-quoted phrases is his 1925 remark, "the business of America is business."). In his private life he was equally noted for his taciturn, thrifty ways. After leaving the White House, he retired to Northampton and wrote various articles promoting his conservative views as well as his autobiography (1929).
References in periodicals archive ?
President Coolidge, for example, regularly discussed Cabinet sessions that typically preceded his news conferences and answered some queries.
President Coolidge discussed the reactive nature of his sessions on November 20, 1928, while talking to a group of newsmen visiting from abroad.
In a June 23, 1925 press conference, President Coolidge emphasized the importance of his off-the-record rules.
Mimi Baird, Trustee Emerita, Coolidge Foundation Kate Bradley, Archivist Phil Camp, Publisher, The Vermont Standard James Cooke, Coolidge Impersonator John Dumville, Vermont Historian Jennifer Sayles Harville, Great Granddaughter of President Coolidge Mark Johnson, Host, WDEV's The Mark Johnson Show Diane Kemble, Education Director, Coolidge Foundation Catherine Nelson, CEO, Rutland Herald David Pietrusza, Coolidge Biographer Bill Schubart, Vermont Author Nicole Wanzer-Serrano, Debate Institutes at Dartmouth Owen J.
Boone, that President Coolidge, burdened by unresolved grief since the loss of his mother and sister during his adolescence, became severely depressed.
On this date 90 years ago, Congress passed - and President Coolidge signed - the Indian Citizenship Act, which stated "all noncitizen Indians born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby declared to be, citizens of the United States: Provided that the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Indian to tribal or other property.
My memory starts with President Coolidge and historical knowledge that the American public has been numb to scandal, being lied to and waste in government since the founding of our republic.
This is a tremendous opportunity to set the record straight and restore President Coolidge to his rightful station among chief executives," said Miss Shlaes.
Douglas, past Vermont governor and current Foundation Trustee, remarked, "We Vermonters have long taken great pride in our native son, President Coolidge.
Christopher Coolidge Jeter, a great grandson of President Coolidge, will award the prize.
A secondary prize called the Calvin will honor the writer under the age of 20 residing in the state of Vermont who produces a comment, published or unpublished, of 1000 words or fewer in the spirit of President Coolidge.
Douglas, Middlebury College John Dumville, State of Vermont Jennifer Sayles Harville, Great Granddaughter of President Coolidge Sarwar A.