Paul Kruger

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Kruger, Paul

(Stephanas Johannes Paulus) (kro͞o`gər, Afrikaans stāfä`nəs yōhä`nəs pou`ləs krü`gər), 1825–1904, South African Transvaal statesman, known as Oom Paul. As a child he accompanied (1836) his family northward from the Cape Colony in the Great Trek that was eventually to cross the Vaal River and establish the Dutch-speaking republic of TransvaalTransvaal
, former province, NE South Africa. With the new constitution of 1994, it was divided into Eastern Transvaal (now Mpumalanga), Northern Transvaal (now Limpopo), Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Veereeniging (now Gauteng), and part of North West prov.
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 (1852). Kruger's life was closely tied to the development of the country; he was a pioneer, soldier, farmer, and politician. The Transvaal was annexed by Great Britain in 1877. Kruger at first cooperated with the British but shortly thereafter was dismissed because of his demands for retrocession. He was one of the triumvirate (with Piet Joubert and Martinius Pretorius) who negotiated the Pretoria agreement with the British (1881) granting the Boers (Afrikaners) independence. Kruger was elected president in 1883 and reelected in 1888, 1893, and 1898. His policy was one of continual resistance to the British, who came to be personified in South Africa by Cecil RhodesRhodes, Cecil John
, 1853–1902, British imperialist and business magnate. Business Career

The son of a Hertfordshire clergyman, he first went to South Africa in 1870, joining his oldest brother, Herbert, on a cotton plantation in Natal.
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. Colonization of Rhodesia N of the Transvaal and the increasing importance of gold mining merely brought much greater resistance on Kruger's part to Rhodes's dream of a unified South Africa. In the 1890s, Kruger adopted a stringent policy against the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders who were settling in the Transvaal. The Jameson Raid (see Jameson, Sir Leander StarrJameson, Sir Leander Starr,
1853–1917, British colonial administrator and statesman in South Africa. He went to Kimberley (1878) as a physician, became associated with Cecil Rhodes in his colonizing ventures, and was appointed (1891) administrator of Mashonaland. On Dec.
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) into the Transvaal (Dec., 1895), undertaken with Rhodes's knowledge, created an international crisis. The Kaiser congratulated Kruger (in the "Kruger telegram") for the successful repulsion of the British, with the implication that Germany had a right to interfere in the Transvaal. The message caused great indignation in England. Kruger fought in the early stages of the South African WarSouth African War
or Boer War,
1899–1902, war of the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State against Great Britain. Background
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, but in 1900 he went to Europe on a Dutch cruiser in a vain effort to enlist aid for his country. He died an exile in Switzerland.

Bibliography

See his memoirs (tr. 1902, repr. 1969); biography by M. Nathan (1941); studies by J. S. Marais (1962), D. M. Schreuder (1969), and C. T. Gordan (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Ook hier word sy woorde verbatim weergegee, wat aansluit by die dokumentere aard van die drama, terwyl die slotsin meer getuig van die dramaturg se empatie met president Kruger ("Oom Paul buigsy hoof stadig vooroor en sit asof in gebed", 48).
Wanneer president Kruger emosioneel ingee onder die druk van die onderhandelinge en sy bewustheid van die prys wat betaal gaan word vir die mislukking van hierdie samesprekings, is dit Fischer wat leiding neem en die slotwoord uiter.
The Times goes as far as to forecast its contents, which, it says, will be found to be simply a brief expression of regret that President Kruger should have taken the serious step involved in addressing a communication of such a nature to her Majesty's Government, and an announcement that her Majesty's Government has no further communication to make to him at the present moment.
South African President Kruger 's discriminatory policies directed at non-Boers made him very unpopular in Britain and the purpose of the toy was to put Kruger in his coffin and bury it
The Lydenburg Commandos who formed part of the Boer fighting force against the British; President Kruger of the Transvaal; Men from the Devonshire Regiment playing football during the Boer War and, right, a group of native Boer women
Botha se werkwyse is telkens om 'n tipe biografie oor Wena Naude (later bekend as "[d]ie meisie wat die appel gebet het"), Hendrik en Mathilde Hanekom (bekend vir hulle voorstelling van president Kruger en sy eggenote, tant Gezina), Petrus Borstlap/Andre Huguenet ("[d]ie ou wat Ampie gespeel het") en Lydia Lindeque ("[d]ie meisie met die silwer rok") te skryf.
When president Kruger visits their chieftain Lobengula to confront him about his involvement with the British, he proudly but naively proclaims, "Lobengula is not a Christian anymore.
When he is captured by the Boers and brought before President Kruger to account for his actions, he warns that his imprisonment will inevitably lead to an English invasion.
In the early morning hours of May 12th the Boers mounted a last attempt to take the town, led by a dashing young officer named Sarel Eloff, who was a grandson of President Kruger.
100 YEARS AGO: The intention of the Government declared by the Chancellor of the Exchequer to impose upon the tax payers of the Transvaal part of the cost of the military operation made necessary by President Kruger has been received with general satisfaction in the country.
In 1900, while attending college in Nantes, Robert decided to volunteer for the Boer forces, and played an important covert role in 1902 when he was sent by the Boer generals on a secret mission to Europe to meet with President Kruger.
The high point of the pro-Boer campaign was the dispatch by Queen Wilhelmina of the Dutch warship Gelderland to bring President Kruger to Europe.

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