Pressure Groups


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Pressure Groups

 

organized social groups in bourgeois states that strive to influence state organs, obtain their support, and promote the adoption of decisions that meet the interests and aims of the groups.

Pressure groups differ from political parties in their relatively narrow goal orientation and lack of a general political program. In the broad sense of the word, pressure groups may refer to political parties and also to elements of the state mechanism (for example, the army). The theory of pressure groups is widely used in political science in the USA and a number of other bourgeois states in describing the processes by which different state decisions are worked out. In bourgeois political literature, the term “pressure group” is used to refer to any public organization that is organized for the purpose of influencing the state apparatus by official and unofficial contacts with its representatives, by mass agitation, and by public demonstrations calculated to create a definite public opinion. The most influential pressure groups are the different organizations of big capital—chambers of commerce and industry, associations of large owners of real estate, and owners and managers of capitalist corporations. Bourgeois political scientists also consider the following as pressure groups: trade unions and other professional associations; organizations of women, youth, and racial and national minorities; religious societies; and various organized movements pursuing limited political, economic, cultural, and ethical aims.

In ranking capitalist pressure groups with worker organizations, in citing their formal equality of opportunity to defend their interests before the state, and in alluding to the balancing of interests of competing groups, bourgeois ideologists attempt to provide a theoretical basis for the concept of pluralist democracy—that is, the dispersal of power among different classes and strata of bourgeois society. In reality, the influence of capitalist pressure groups unconditionally dominates. They are an important channel connecting the state apparatus with the monopolies, and, with the bourgeois parties, they ensure the political supremacy of the financial-industrial elite.

G. V. BARABASHEV

References in periodicals archive ?
A NEW Welsh language pressure group is needed to meet the challenges of modern Wales, a leading academic and activist has warned.
The perspective of my editors--and of many columnists in this country--is that the obligation to look to opposing pressure groups in Canada isn't as great when powerful opposition is found next door in the words and actions of the American President.
These are the real reasons why the five-in-one vaccine is being introduced, rather than the absence of thiomersal, which some pressure groups concentrated on.
As one of the first sectors targeted by pressure groups such as Greenpeace, pulp and papermakers face a highly effective infrastructure of scrutiny and the propaganda legacy of decades of successful negative campaigns against the industry.
He rejects the allegations being made by Jewish pressure groups, recalling that the Vienna-Based European Monitoring Centre is an independent institution and the European Commission has no right to interfere in its proceedings.
Power flowed away from the disintegrating state organizations and to a growing array of Washington-based pressure groups descended from the civil rights, feminist, consumer, and environmental movements.
But the Tory peer leading the fight against the reforms has warned that single-issue pressure groups, such as pro-life campaigners, could seize powerful posts on hospital boards.
Pressure groups warned a recently leaked text indicated that intense pressure from industry had taken its toll and the draft is expected to be considerably weaker than one presented for consultation earlier this year.
and knowledge" taught in the service of the Church, and the College's recent concessions to certain pressure groups lobbying to redefine it along secular mores.
The Daily Record, MSPs and pressure groups savaged the judge and called on the Crown Office to intervene.
The Political Economy of Pressure Groups and Miseducation Barrie Craven, Pauline Dixon, Gordon Stewart and James Tooley Price $18.
The Language Police: How Pressure Groups Restrict What Students Learn', written by historian of education at New York University Diane Ravitch, is a fiercely argued book about the censorship in children's textbooks.