Primary Workers

Primary Workers


production workers directly engaged in the output of the main product of the enterprise, whether it be finished goods, semifinished goods, or individual items.

Primary workers constitute the most important part of the work force of the enterprise. The absolute number and relative proportion of primary workers in industry depend on how concentrated and specialized production has become, on the level of mechanization and automation in production processes, and on improved methods of organizing labor and production. An increase in the proportion of primary workers that is achieved by reducing the number of auxiliary workers is a major reserve for raising labor productivity and overall efficiency in social production.

In enterprise plans, primary workers are grouped by assigned shop, by specialization, and by level of qualification; their number is also reckoned according to length of service, sex, and age. The number of primary workers at an enterprise is conditioned by the nature of production technology and may be calculated on the basis of the labor intensity of various jobs, output norms, service norms, and standard work force sizes. In most industrial sectors, the planned number of primary workers for an enterprise as a whole is calculated on the basis of the labor intensity of planned physical output, the volume of required services, the real working time of one worker, and the calculated coefficient of norm fulfillment as defined in the plan. For example, the planned number of primary workers in normative jobs in machine building is defined by the ratio of the labor intensity of planned physical output (measured in norm-hours) to the real working time of one average worker, taking into account the planned percentage of norm fulfillment. In sectors with equipment- and unit-based production processes such as the chemical, metallurgical, and petroleum refining industries, where the worker’s function is essentially reduced to supporting and controlling the process, the necessary number of primary workers is determined by service norms.

The level of qualification of primary workers is characterized according to the skill categories they have attained; an average skill category for any collective of workers can be calculated. Primary workers in normative jobs are paid according to piece rates, while in timed jobs they are paid on an hourly wage scale.


Ekonomika truda. Edited by A. S. Kudriavtsev. Moscow, 1967.
Kostin, L. A. Planirovanie truda v promyshlennosti. Moscow, 1967.
Prakticheskoe posobie po ekonomike truda. Moscow, 1970.
Petrochenko, P. F., and K. E. Kuznetsova. Organizatsiia i normirovanie truda v promyshlennosti SSSR. [Moscow] 1971.


References in periodicals archive ?
Three stylized facts characterize informality: (1) small firms tend to operate informally while large firms tend to operate formally; (2) unskilled workers tend to be informal while skilled ones have formal jobs; (3) ceteris paribus, secondary workers (a worker other than the household head) are less likely to operate formally than primary workers.
The food team, made up of two primary workers, one for secondary schools and one for special schools, works with catering staff, teachers, children and parents to give nutritional advice and address any issues individual schools may have.
The migration of the primary workers takes the secondary skills with them leaving the secondary industries, such as the service sector, in ruins.
Women and children were the primary workers in the trade, and how they fit in the family and inter-family economies of the industry created a set of customs, ideas and values about the division of labor and the value of women and children as economic entities.
Where primary workers enjoy substantial salaries, benefits, and job security, secondary or contingent workers receive subsistence-level incomes, few if any benefits, and little job security.
Sargent said the Rodriguezes' house is being built under the Women Accepting the Challenge Housing program, or WATCH, in which the primary workers are female.
After security at the Mayfair compiled a list of personnel, an ID station was set up on one of the construction floors to issue photo IDs to all primary workers.
Its main business activities include underwriting primary workers compensation insurance policies, underwriting workers' compensation reinsurance and excess insurance policies, and providing fee-based management and other services to self-insured entities.
SNCC's recent profitability reflects premium rate increases in the primary workers compensation market that have resulted in heightened demand for the company's excess workers compensation product.
SNCC's recent profitability reflects rising premium rates in the primary workers compensation market, which have driven employers towards SNCC's excess workers compensation insurance product.
Fitch will review its Rating Watch status for PMA, following any announcements regarding changes in organization structures, an assessment of the longer term competitive position and earnings potential of PMA's primary workers compensation operations following recent events, and the reserve adequacy and performance in run-off of PMA Re.
This strong base of primary workers compensation risk underwriting has allowed us to continue to offer the very important self-insured group product to our customers in California while right-sizing our fee-based operations as we reduce our exposure to the New York self-insured market, and to maintain the diversified offering which we believe the market will demand over the long term.