Procellariiformes


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Procellariiformes

[‚prō·sə·lə‚rī·ə′fȯr‚mēz]
(vertebrate zoology)
An order of oceanic birds characterized by tubelike nostril openings, webbed feet, dense plumage, compound horny sheath of the bill, and, often, a peculiar musky odor.

Procellariiformes

 

an order of sea birds. The ends of their beaks are bent into hooks. The nostrils open into special tubes on the beak (whence their second name, tube-nosed swimmers, Tubinares). The feet are webbed, the wings are long and sharp, and the plumage is thick and dense. The body length is from 15 cm (petrels) to 105 cm (albatrosses).

The birds fly and swim well, and certain species of Procellariiformes are good divers. Their peculiar wing structure allows them to soar for hours over the sea without a single wing movement. On land the birds (except for albatrosses) move with difficulty and remain on dry land only in the breeding period. During the rest of the year they make long migrations, such as around Antarctica or from subantarctic regions to the Bering Sea. They are monogamous. Small species begin to reproduce in their second or third year; the larger species, in their fifth to tenth year, after which they do so yearly. They nest in colonies, sometimes far from the sea. There is one egg per clutch. Albatrosses build nests, while other species lay their eggs on the ground, in burrows, or in fissures. Both parents brood. The chicks are blind and covered with thick down. The chicks of the smaller species stay in the nest about 60 days, while those of the albatross stay about six months. They get their food (marine invertebrates, fish, fishing offal) in the upper waters. Only some of the Procellariiformes (the Pelecanoides) are capable of diving.

There are 24 genera of Procellariiformes, uniting 94 species. They are distributed largely in the southern hemisphere. There are 13 species in the USSR, of which four nest. The fork-tailed petrel and Leach’s petrel (Oceanodrama furcata and O. leucorrhoa) nest in the Komandorskie Islands and Kuril Islands, Swinhoe’s petrel (O. monorhis) nests near Vladivostok, and the fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) nests on the shores of the Barents and Bering seas. Encountered during migrations are the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) in the Black and Azov seas and the slender-billed shearwater (P. tenuirostris), sooty shearwater (P. griseus), short-tailed albatross (Diomedea albatrus), and black-footed albatross (D. nigripes) in the Pacific.

REFERENCE

Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 2. Edited by G. P. Dement’ev and N. A. Gladkov. Moscow, 1951.

A. M. SUDILOVSKAIA

References in periodicals archive ?
The mass growth of chicks was typical of Procellariiformes, with a period of rapid increase followed by a period of slow decline before fledging (Fig.
The period of mass increase to the asymptote and the period of mass decline, typical of the growth of Procellariiformes (Warham 1990), were similar for male and female chicks.
Investigations of the phylogenetic relationships within the orders Procellariiformes and Sphenisciformes have been characterized by a lack of agreement among authors.
Both of these orders are thought to be closely related to the Sphenisciformes and Procellariiformes (see Sibley et al.
The diving petrel (Pelecanoides georgicus) was placed as sister taxon to the other Procellariiformes in the BLH trees but within the Procellariidae in the molecular trees.
A subtree of the MP total evidence tree containing the Procellariiformes is shown in figure 6.
Los resultados confirman los antecedentes sobre el comportamiento forrajero de estos procellariiformes, siendo significativo solo para los albatros (Tablas 3 y 5) y no para la fardela negra grande (Tabla 4).
As in smaller Procellariiformes, they mix short trips over the peri-insular shelf area and long trips in oceanic waters (Weimerskirch et al.
If the adult body mass change was a decrease, thus indicating the use of energy reserves, the energy value of body mass change is therefore negative and equal to body mass loss (in gram) multiplied by the energy density of body mass change in Procellariiformes (22.
1993) suggest that gliding flight of Procellariiformes costs 3 x BMR regardless of body size.
A similar argument may apply to other Procellariiformes that switch between dynamic soaring and flapping flight according to wind strength.
Band 1: Erforshungsgeschichte, Gaviiformes, Podicipediformes, Procellariiformes.