Fall diets of alewife, rainbow smelt, and slimy sculpin in the profundal
zone of southern Lake Ontario during 1994-2005 with an emphasis on occurrence of Mysis relicta.
It is a common and often dominating tubificid species in the profundal
of many European eutrophic lakes (Timm 2013).
Heavy metal levels may be high in sublittoral and profundal
sediment samples collected from especially input sections of natural lenthic systems.
The organic matter in the profundal
sediment of the lake originates mainly from plankton which is settled during winter.
Measures include substrate quality, instream habitat cover, watershed characteristics, shoreline development, littoral and profundal
zone development and quality, depth, and measures of erosion and embeddedness.
1983, "Composition and diversity of the profundal
macrobenthic community in the polluted lake Nemi (Central Italy), 1979-80," Ecological Applications, 4, 211-220.
5 km wide with a maximum depth of 5 m before a steep drop toward profundal
depths at the edge of the bay, approximately 0.
With these data we were able to determine optimal locations for sediment coring and to collect and analyze profundal
Microenvironment of chironomid larvae in the littoral and profundal
zones of Lake Maarsseveen I, The Netherlands.
Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the profundal
benthos of Spanish reservoirs and lakes: factors affecting distribution patters.
They represent the profundal
facies of a large lake and yield an aquatic fauna consisting of vertebrates and crustaceans, such as ostracodes, conchostracans, and syncarids.
Standing water lakes may be large or small, and the life zones are classified as the littoral zone, at the edge of the lake and quite productive; the limnetic zone, a region of open water where phytoplankton are abundant in the upper layers, and the profundal
zone, the region below the limnetic zone where there is no plant life.