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Prometheus(prōmē`thēəs), in Greek mythology, great benefactor of mankind. He was the son of the Titan Iapetus and of Clymene or Themis. Because he foresaw the defeat of the TitansTitan,
in Greek religion and mythology, one of 12 primeval deities. The female Titan is also called Titaness. The Titans—six sons and six daughters—were the children of Uranus and Gaea.
..... Click the link for more information. by the Olympians he sided with Zeus and thus was spared the punishment of the other Titans. According to one legend Prometheus created mankind out of clay and water. When Zeus mistreated man, Prometheus stole fire from the gods, gave it to man, and taught him many useful arts and sciences. In another legend he saved the human race from extinction by warning his son, DeucalionDeucalion
, in Greek mythology, son of Prometheus and father of Hellen. When Zeus, angered by humanity's irreverence, flooded the earth, Deucalion, warned by Prometheus, survived by taking refuge with his wife, Pyrrha, in an ark.
..... Click the link for more information. , of a great flood. This sympathy with mankind roused the anger of Zeus, who then plagued man with Pandora and her box of evils and chained Prometheus to a mountain peak in the Caucasus. In some myths he was released by Hercules; in others Zeus restored his freedom when Prometheus revealed the danger of Zeus' marrying Thetis, fated to bear a son who would be more powerful than his father. Prometheus is the subject of many literary works, of which the most famous are Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound and Shelley's Prometheus Unbound.
Prometheus(prōmē`thēəs), in astronomy, one of the named moons, or natural satellites, of SaturnSaturn,
in astronomy, 6th planet from the sun. Astronomical and Physical Characteristics of Saturn
Saturn's orbit lies between those of Jupiter and Uranus; its mean distance from the sun is c.886 million mi (1.
..... Click the link for more information. . Also known as Saturn XVI (or S16), Prometheus is an irregularly shaped (nonspherical) body measuring about 90 mi (145 km) by 53 mi (85 km) by 38 mi (62 km); it orbits Saturn at a mean distance of 86,588 mi (139,350 km) and has an orbital period of 0.613 earth days—the rotational period is unknown but is assumed to be the same as the orbital period. It was discovered by a team led by S. Collins in 1980 from an examination of photographs taken by Voyager 1 during its flyby of Saturn. Prometheus has several craters about 12.5 mi (20 km) in diameter and a number of linear ridges and valleys but appears to be less cratered than the neighboring moons EpimetheusEpimetheus,
in astronomy, one of the named moons, or natural satellites, of Saturn. Also known as Saturn XI (or S11), Epimetheus is an irregularly shaped (nonspherical) body measuring about 89 mi (144 km) by 67 mi (108 km) by 61 mi (98 km); it orbits Saturn at a mean distance of
..... Click the link for more information. , JanusJanus
, in astronomy, one of the named moons, or natural satellites, of Saturn. Also known as Saturn X (or S10), Janus is an irregularly shaped (nonspherical) body measuring about 122 mi (196 km) by 119 mi (192 km) by 93 mi (150 km); it orbits Saturn at a mean distance of 94,120
..... Click the link for more information. , and PandoraPandora
, in astronomy, one of the named moons, or natural satellites, of Saturn. Also known as Saturn XVII (or S17), Pandora is an irregularly shaped (nonspherical) body measuring about 71 mi (114 km) by 52 mi (84 km) by 38 mi (62 km); it orbits Saturn at a mean distance of
..... Click the link for more information. . It is the inner shepherd satellite (a moon that limits the extent of a planetary ring through gravitational forces) of Saturn's F ring.
Prometheus(prŏ-mee -th'ee-ŭs, -mee -thyooss)
Prometheus(religion, spiritualism, and occult)
Prometheus, the rebellious Titan from Greek mythology, has given his name to asteroid 1,809 (discovered on September 24, 1960), as well as to one of the moons of Saturn. In contemporary astrological circles, however, Prometheus is most familiar through the work of Richard Tarnas as the mythological figure best expressing the astrological nature of the planet Uranus. Astrologers have long noted, though few expressed the observation, that the traits attributed to the astrological Uranus appear to have no association whatsoever with the mythological Uranus. Using this discrepancy as his starting point, Tarnas took the further step of observing that the mythological figure best expressing the character traits of the astrological Uranus was Prometheus. In an article in the Journal of the British Astrological Association, Tarnas said, “The more I examined the matter the more I realized that every quality astrologers associate with the planet Uranus was reflected in the myth of Prometheus: the initiation of radical change, the passion for freedom, the defiance of authority, the act of cosmic rebellion against a universal structure to free humanity of limitation, the intellectual brilliance and genius, the element of excitement and risk.”
Tarnas’s ideas have received widespread acceptance in the astrological communitty. Astrologers who hesitate accepting an exception to the widely held principle that the name given to a celestial body by an astronomer synchronistically corresponds with its archetypal meaning might note that the mythological Uranus is related to the astrological Uranus as its complementary polarity: The Greek Uranus was a tyrant who opposed change, which represents characteristics that must be in place before Prometheus can express his rebellious, freedom-seeking, change-at-any-cost nature.
Other planets embody such polar characteristics. Thus, the astrological Saturn, for example, expresses both security-seeking and insecurity. And Mars indicates both courage and fear, although traditionally astrologers noted only the courageous, assertive nature of Mars and not the corresponding Martian anxiety. In eccentric Uranus, it is the polar opposite principle that is expressed by the planet’s namesake. Thus, to acknowledge both Tarnas and the tradition of synchronistic meanings, one could assert that the area of the natal chart where a native feels rebellious (as indicated by the placement of natal Uranus) is also the area where she or he feels most oppressed.
in Greek mythology, the Titan who defended mankind from the tyranny of the gods. In the oldest versions of the myth, Prometheus stole fire from Mount Olympus and gave it to man. For this, Zeus had him bound to a cliff and condemned to incessant torture: an eagle flew to Prometheus every day or every other day and pecked out his liver, which continually grew back. Depending on the classical source, these torments continued for several centuries or for as long as 30,000 years, until Heracles slew the eagle with an arrow and freed Prometheus.
In Aeschylus’ tragedy Prometheus Bound, the theme of the theft of fire is supplemented by the depiction of Prometheus as the first discoverer of all the cultural benefits that have made the achievements of human civilization possible: Prometheus taught man to build dwellings, dig for metals, cultivate the land, sail, read, write, do arithmetic, and observe the stars. Punished for his love of mankind, Aeschylus’ Prometheus hurls a bold challenge at Zeus and, despite his terrible torments, is ready to defend his own Tightness. K. Marx called Aeschylus’ Prometheus “the most eminent saint and martyr in the philosophical calendar” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Iz rannikh proizv., 1956, p. 25).
The humanistic aspects of Prometheus as the rebel and martyr were developed in poetry by Byron, P. B. Shelley, N. P. Ogarev, T. Shevchenko, and other writers; in music by F. Liszt, A. N. Scriabin, and other composers; and in the visual arts by Titian, F. G. Gordeev, and other artists. Works by Calderón, Goethe, and Beethoven reflect the late classical version of the myth, which depicts Prometheus as the creator of the first human beings, molded by him from earth and endowed with consciousness.
REFERENCESNusinov, I. M. “Istoriia obraza Prometeia.” Istoriia literaturnogo geroia. Moscow, 1958.
Séchan, L. Le Mythe de Prométhée. Paris, 1951.
Trousson, R. Le Thème de Prométhée dans la littérature européenne, vols. 1–2. Geneva, 1964.
V. N. IARKHO