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in the Soviet system of government, the organized promotion of leading workers and peasants to positions of leadership in state, economic, cooperative, trade-union, and other administrative and ruling bodies. On the eve of the October Revolution and in the first years of Soviet power, Lenin raised the question of involving the workers in state administration. This task was put on a practical basis in the resolutions of the Seventh, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Thirteenth Party Congresses, as well as the Decree of the Central Committee of the ACP (Bolshevik) of Mar. 7, 1927, “On the Tasks of the Party in Promoting Workers and Peasants to the State Administrative Bodies.”

The promotion policy directed by the Communist Party played a major role in breaking up the old state system and creating the new Soviet state organization as well as in forming the new Soviet intelligentsia and strengthening the dictatorship of the proletariat. The selection of persons to be promoted was carried out through the Party and trade unions with the participation of broad masses of the working people. Qualified workers and peasants were promoted to leadership positions. They lacked specialized education but had high class consciousness and experience in life, and they had demonstrated organizational abilities in socialist construction. The promotion policy was most highly developed in the period of building the economic foundation of socialism in the USSR (1921-32). Under the promotion system, by the end of the First Five-Year Plan the leadership cadres of the nation had been increased by 800,000-900,000 persons. The promotion policy began to decline as a system in the early 1930’s. It was gradually replaced by the planned training of specialists in various Soviet secondary and advanced educational institutions.


Lenin, V. I. “Ocherednye zadachi Sovetskoi vlasti.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo rabochikh i partiinaia nedelia.” Ibid., vol. 39.
Sostav Rukovodiashchikh rabotnikov i spetsialistov Soiuza SSR, SSR. Moscow, 1936. Pages 392, 457.
Rabochii klass v upravlenii gosudarstvom (1926-1937 gg.). Moscow,. 1968.
Sovetskaia intelligentsiia (Istoriia formiroaniia i rosta, 1917-1965 gg.). Moscow, 1968.


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Molecular events implicated as required for tumor promotion or tumor maintenance in the JB6 model have proved to be predictive for initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis in vivo (7) and for human keratinocyte progression (8,9).
He is also looking into allegations that the department has needlessly delayed promotions.
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Nonetheless, justifying promotion choices can be tedious and time-consuming.
With Entellium, our salespeople now have immediate access to a client's order history," said Scott Wieclaw, vice president of sales for ELK Promotions.
Baca apparently named at least 40 deputies for promotion who were not selected through the approved process, said Dennis Harley, a Pasadena attorney who monitors the Los Angeles County Sheriff Department's compliance with a 1991 court order intended to increase women's opportunities.
The service provides the depth of coverage required to measure and improve promotion effectiveness at retail.
The solution then standardizes and translates the disparate data into meaningful information, making it available to both the operator and their trading partners to enable the collaboration required to more effectively manage promotions and limited time offers.
Somerfield, which has 1,224 stores nationwide and owns retailer Kwik Save, chose Manugistics' industry leading pricing and promotion solutions over several competitors to provide a total solution including software, implementation and hosting the Somerfield solution at the Manugistics Data Center.
has selected Instill's Promotion Management solution to improve the administration and maximize the value of the franchisee's limited time offers.
which harnesses the principles of genetic evolution to optimize concepts, products and brands for consumer-focused companies, today announced the launch of IDEA for Promotion Optimization, the newest application of its IDEA(TM) (Interactive Design by Evolutionary Algorithms) technology, which leading consumer brands such as Procter & Gamble, Dannon and Cadbury Schweppes have used to explore, optimize and evolve market-winning product and packaging concepts.