proportional representation

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proportional representation:

see representationrepresentation,
in government, the term used to designate the means by which a whole population may participate in governing through the device of having a much smaller number of people act on their behalf.
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Proportional Representation

 

in bourgeois electoral law, a means of determining the results of a vote, according to which the distribution of seats among parties that have nominated candidates for a representative body conforms with the number of votes received. Under proportional representation large electoral districts are established in which each party nominates its own slate of candidates and the voter casts his vote for a party’s slate. To determine the results of the vote, an electoral yardstick (or quota) is set, that is, a minimum number of votes needed to obtain one seat. The seats within a party’s slate are generally distributed in conformity with the order in which the candidates are listed; such a slate is termed a connected slate.

Proportional representation exists in Italy, Belgium, Finland, and elsewhere. In a number of countries, including Australia and India, a form of proportional representation called preferential voting is used in presidential elections.

In the bourgeois multiparty system, proportional representation is the most democratic way of determining the results of a vote, since the bodies elected in this manner are more representative in character. The Communist and workers’ parties of capitalist states make demands for proportional representation, but bourgeois states are reluctant to accept this, since they fear an increase in the number of workers’ representatives in elected bodies. Most bourgeois states use the majority system of representation.

proportional representation

Politics representation of parties in an elective body in proportion to the votes they win
References in periodicals archive ?
The Liberal Democrats' call for a proportional voting system has some support in the Labour party, but none amongst the Conservatives.
With the exception of a long line of very small political parties which feel that the Czech proportional voting system is harmful to them, the people in general simply complain about the inability of the executive (overloaded with a torrent of competing demands and expectations) to address urgent problems and to deliver quick and effective solutions, which were zealously promised in pre-election campaign rhetoric.
On December 15, 2005, Iraq held its second ever election, with Iraq's eighteen provinces electing 275 members of parliament using a proportional voting method.
The essential point is that a set of party strategies might well come into play under proportional voting that would make it rational, at least in electoral terms, for prospective coalition partners in government to essentially "vacate" particular regions or groups to one another.
No one should think state-by-state proportional voting for president would expand without controversy.
And proportional voting in the European elections means that we vote for a list of eight or nine strangers and somebody else decides which one gets in.
Some argue that proportional voting corrects such imbalance, and feel that this method is used too infrequently.
For example, the Law Commission of Canada has spent the last two years studying, holding public consultations, and developing a position that suggests Canada move to a mixed member proportional voting system.
The opening session of the conference saw activists unleash a chorus of criticism of plans to introduce proportional voting at the next Scottish local elections in 2007.
This election marks the first use of proportional voting, which allows voters to choose specific candidates rather than a party slate, and of a requirement that one-third of the candidates must be women.
The second article, "Short-term Dynamic Transmission and Long-term Foreign Share Discount: Evidence from the Chinese Stock Markets," by Xu and Liu considers the corporate governance issue by investigating the price differentials between two types of equity, A (with greater proportional voting rights) and B (where a relative loss of voting rights is compensated by a relative gain in dividend payments).
Under New Zealand's proportional voting system, the result allows Fitzsimons to carry five Green colleagues with her into the parliament, to reflect the proportion of votes the party won nationally.

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