Przewalski's horse


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Przewalski's horse

(pshəväl`skēz), wild horsehorse,
hoofed, herbivorous mammal now represented by a single extant genus, Equus. The term horse commonly refers only to the domestic Equus caballus and to the wild Przewalski's horse.
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 of Asia, Equus przewalski, E. ferus przewalski, or E. caballus przewalski, the only extant wild horse that, in the purebred state, is not descended from the domestic horse. Smaller than most domestic horses, it has a large head and bulging forehead. It is dun-colored, with an upright crest of dark hair on its head and neck, a dark stripe along the backbone, and a dark, plumed tail. The animal's former range probably extended from W Mongolia to N Xinjiang, China.

Przewalski's horse can interbreed with the domestic horse, and some authorities regard it as a subspecies of the domestic horse (E. caballus), although it has a different number of chromosomes. Because interbreeding with Mongol horses may have begun centuries ago, it is possible that even the original specimens of Przewalski's horse to be described were actually of mixed descent.

The horse was first recognized as a separate species by Nikolai Mikhailovich PrzhevalskyPrzhevalsky, Nikolai Mikhailovich
, 1839–88, Russian geographer and explorer in central and E Asia. He made five major expeditions—one to the Ussuri area in the Russian Far East (1867–68) and four to Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet (1870–85).
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, a Russian explorer and geographer, in the 1870s. In the 1960s the horse became extinct in the wild, largely due to competition with domestic livestock for grazing land and water and to hunting for horsemeat, but many specimens survived in zoos, where they breed well. Since 1992 the horse has been reintroduced with some success to several locations in Mongolia and China, using animals originally bred in European zoos.

Tarpan is the name for members of another race of the same species, E. ferus gmelini or E. caballus gmelini, which formerly ranged over the steppes of E Europe and W Asia, but has been extinct since the last century. Attempts have been made to breed back a tarpanlike horse from domestic horses believed to have been interbred with tarpans.

Wild horses are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Perissodactyla, family Equidae.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Mitochondrial control region and 12S rRNA variation in Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii).
Named for the Russian colonel who led an expedition in 1881 that found them, Przewalski's horses were extinct in the wild for decades until a captive breeding program reintroduced them to Mongolia in the mid-1990s.
For comparison, they also sequenced the genomes of five domestic horse breeds, a donkey and a Przewalski's horse, the rare wild horse that lives in central Asia.
Naturally, they have come to be called Przewalski's horses.
Another major breeding program at the world's zoos and the Wild Animal Park is for the Przewalski's horse, the world's original equine.
Because the wild horse has an extra pair of chromosomes compared with modern domestic horses, the team was surprised to find that Przewalski's horse had no SNPs of its own.
FC Wales conservation manager Iolo Lloyd said: ``Although they are known as the Mongolian wild horse, the Przewalski's horse roamed Britain 3, 000 to 4, 000 years ago, so this truly is a scene from the past.
After a successful reintroduction, 306 Przewalski's horses now live in Mongolia.
Characterized by thick necks, large heads and stocky barrels, Przewalski's horses weigh between 250-350 kilograms, are about 1.
Furthermore, considering the problems encountered even by modern collectors trying to breed Przewalski's horses, it seems likely that horse-keeping would have had to have been relatively advanced before controlled breeding, and consequently domestication would have been possible.
Primitive Przewalski's horses are already being used to control woodland vegetation at Clocaenog Forest, while wild boar are being employed in private woods around Beddgelert.
Now, there are enough Przewalski's horses to reintroduce herds into their native habitats.