Various causes have been proposed, including systemic diseases, such as vicarious menses and coagulopathies (albeit historically reported in malaria, scurvy, and epilepsy), exertion and psychogenic disorders
in which bleeding might be the result of exacerbated sympathetic nervous system activation.
Dyspnoea is primarily of respiratory or cardiac origin, with almost 90% of all cases being due to asthma, heart failure, myocardial ischaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and psychogenic disorders
causing pruritus (itchy somatoform disorder/functional disorder, dermatitis factitus, impulse control disorder, neurotic excoriation, psychosis-illusion of parasites, schizophrenia with tactile hallucinations).
To detect the organic brain disorders from the psychogenic disorders
and from the normal, Bender-Gestalt Test's simple administration and scoring give a definite advantage for clinical assessments 1
VCD affects the trachea, and its etiology is linked to laryngeal irritants, psychogenic disorders
, and neurogenic conditions.
Alleged psychogenic disorders
in women--a possible manifestation of sexual prejudice.
in neurology: frequency and clinical spectrum.
From among the four most common general etiologic categories--paralysis, cricoarytenoid joint fixation, synkinesis, and interarytenoid scar/posterior glottic stenosis--the most important specific causes are iatrogenic or surgical trauma, intubation trauma, neoplasms, neurologic disorders, inflammatory diseases, and psychogenic disorders
Chapter Two, "Non-Organic Disorders," begins with an introduction followed by information about muscle tension, disorders, professional voice users, occupational voice disorders, gender dysphoria, puberphonia and psychogenic disorders
The suspect had received regular medical treatment for mental illness at hospitals in Nara, Mie and Yamanashi prefectures after her son and another daughter died in 1997 and she began to exhibit psychogenic disorders